Prof. Elijah Songok

Director Research Capacity Building & KGS

Prof. Songok is a Virologist with more than 25 years’ experience in research and training on HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and emerging viral infections. He has won more than twenty international research grants and awards with more than fifty publications in peer reviewed journals.

Before his appointment to head KEMRI Graduate School, he has been a professor at The University of Manitoba in Canada and Kanazawa University in Japan. Prof. Songok brings a rich international experience in graduate research training to KEMRI.

His current research projects and interests include trends and diversity of viral hepatitis infections in Africa, HIV Molecular epidemiology and antiretroviral drug resistance, tracking emerging Covid-19 genetic variants and exploration of novel biomarkers for immune protection

Education Qualification

Prof Songok has a Postdoc in Genomics (2008), University of Manitoba, Canada; PhD in Viral Infections (2003) from Kanazawa University, Japan; MSc in Biochemistry (1996) and BSc in Biochemistry (1985), University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Selected Publications
  1. Songok EM (2020). A locally sustainable approach to COVID-19 Testing in Africa; a commentary. Lancet Microbes 2020 Sep;1(5):e197. doi: 10.1016/S2666- 5247(20)30118-X. Epub 2020 Sep 7.
  2. Koech S, Odari E, Lihana R, Maiyo A, Cheriro W, Kiptoo M, Azumi I, and Songok EM (2020): Viral Hepatitis B genotypes among outpatient clinic attendees in North Rift, Kenya . Japan Journal of Gastoenterology and Hepatology (View Publication)
  3. Shah R, Boucheron P. Mandaliya K, KattaMaiyo A, Chevalie S, Shimakawa Y, Songok EM, Lemoine M (2020). Hepatitis C Virus Infection in people who inject drugs in Africa. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Mar;20(3):282-283. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30049
  4. Mizuno T, Matey EJ, Bi X, Songok EM, Ichimura H, Tokoro M (2020). Extremely diversified haplotypes observed among assemblage B population of Giardia intestinalis in Kenya. Parasitol Int. 2020 Apr;75:102038. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2019.102038. Epub 2019 Dec 16.
  5. Avila. S; Kugo M, Hornung S, Brian F, Apeah B, Songok EM, Beta T (2020). Carica papaya seeds enhances phytochemicals and functional properties in cornmeal porridges
  6. Food Chemistry (View Publication)

Dr. Martin Bundi

Ag. Deputy Director Academic Affairs

Dr. Bundi is an Assistant Principal Research Scientist with over 14 years research experience on food-borne pathogens and enteric bacteria associated with diarrheal disease in Kenya and has published several papers in this field. He holds a PhD degree in Medical Science from Nagasaki University, Japan, an MSc. in Biotechnology and a BSc. in Biochemistry. He is also a visiting researcher at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University.

Dr. Bundi is certified by the International Federation of Biosafety Associations (IFBA) as a Biosafety Professional and a Global Biosafety mentor in Biorisk Management and Biosecurity. He has supported KEMRI since 2010 in training new BSL-3 laboratory users at the BSL-3 facility at CMR-KEMRI laboratory. He currently serves as the Honorary Vice President for the African Biological Safety Association (AfBSA).

Selected Publications
  1. Martin Bundi, Mohammad Shah, Erick Odoyo, Cyrus Kathiiko, Ernest Wandera,
    Gabriel Miring’u, Sora Guyo, Daniel Langat, Kouichi Morita, and Yoshio Ichinose (2021). Occurrence in Kenya of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variants carrying both Classical and ElTor type ctxB. 52. (View Publication)
  2. Martin Bundi, Mohammad Shah, Erick Odoyo, Cyrus Kathiiko, Ernest Wandera, Gabriel Miring’u, Sora Guyo, Daniel Langat, Kouichi Morita, and Yoshio Ichinose. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates responsible for cholera outbreaks in Kenya between 1975 and 2017. Microbiology and Immunology. 2019;63:350‐358. (View Publication)
  3. Wandera, E. A., Komoto, S., Mohammad, S., Ide, T., Bundi, M., Nyangao, J., … &Fukuda, S. (2019). Genomic characterization of uncommon human G3P [6] rotavirus strains that have emerged in Kenya after rotavirus vaccine introduction, and pre-vaccine human G8P [4] rotavirus strains. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 68, 231-248 (View Publication)
  4. Betty Muriithi, Martin Bundi, Amina Galata, Gabriel Miring’u, Ernest Wandera, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Martha Kamemba, Evans Amukoye, Sora Huka, Mohammad Shah, Shingo Inoue and Yoshio Ichinose (2018). Biosafety and Biosecurity capacity building: Insights from implementation of the NUITM-KEMRI Biosafety training model. Tropical Medicine and Health, 46:30. (View Publication)
  5. Wandera, E. A., Mohammad, S., Bundi, M., Nyangao, J., Galata, A., Kathiiko, C., … & Ichinose, Y. (2018). Impact of rotavirus vaccination on rotavirus hospitalisation rates among a resource‐limited rural population in Mbita, Western Kenya. Tropical Medicine & International Health (View Publication)
  6. Wandera, E. A., Mohammad, S., Bundi, M., Komoto, S., Nyangao, J., Kathiiko, C., … & Ichinose, Y. (2017). Impact of rotavirus vaccination on rotavirus and all-cause gastroenteritis in peri-urban Kenyan children. Vaccine. 35(38):5217-5223 (View Publication)

Mr. Aggrey Mokaya

Examinations and Admission Coordinator

Aggrey is an Environmental Health practitioner with over 11 years’ experience leading and collaborating in research studies across various themes including environment, mental health, resilience, sanitation and food security and nutrition. He is an environmental and social impact assessment expert and completed a Monitoring and Evaluation Fellowship from the University of
Nairobi Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (UNITID). He has expertise in statistics, panel studies and assessing impacts of interventions over time. He has authored/co-authored conference abstracts and manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. His present research interests include child and adolescent mental health, water-based epidemiology and data science.

Education Qualification
  • PhD Public Health (Ongoing)
  • MSc Public Health – JKUAT 2016
  • BSc (Environmental Health) – Moi University, 2010
Selected Publications
  1. Clair, V., Rossa-Rocor, V., Mokaya, A. G., Mutiso, V., Musau, A., Tele, A., Ndetei, D. M. & Frank, E. (2019) Peer and Mentored Enhanced Web-Based Training on Substance Use Disorders: A Promising Approach in Low-Resource Settings to Teach Knowledge and Skills and Decrease Stigma. Psychiatric Services.
  2. Oliver, E. M., Mokaya, A.G., & Nyangore, T. M. (2017) The Effect of Community-Led Total Sanitation Intervention on Sanitation and Hygiene Practices in Mogotio Sub-County, Baringo County, Kenya. In Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, East African Research in Progress Meeting, Moshi, Tanzania.
  3. Mokaya, A. G., Mutiso, V., Musau, A., Tele, A., Kombe, Y., Ng’ang’a, Z., … & Clair, V. (2016). Substance Use among a Sample of Healthcare Workers in Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 48(4), 310-319.
  4. Mokaya, A. G. (2016). ICT4HEALTH: The Case for E-Learning as a Platform for Continuing Mental Health Education in Kenya. In Towards Excellence in Research and Innovation in a Contemporary World. The 3rd Annual Baraton International Interdisciplinary Research Conference. Kapsabet, Kenya.
  5. Clair, V., Mutiso, V., Mokaya, A. G., Musau, A., Frank, E., & Ndetei, D. M. (2016). Decreasing Stigma towards Alcohol, Tobacco and other Substance Use through Online Training.In Rates, B. I. (2016). 2016 ASAM Annual Poster Presenter Abstracts.  (View Publication)
  6. Clair, V., Mutiso, V., Musau, A., Tele, A., Mokaya, A. G., Frank, E., &Ndetei, D. M. (2016). Health Workers Learned Brief Intervention Online through and Deliver them effectively In Rates, B. I. (2016). 2016 ASAM Annual Poster Presenter Abstracts. (View Publication)

Dr. Luna Kamau

Deputy Head Molecular Medicine

Dr. Luna Kamau is a Molecular Entomology and Ecology Researcher with over 23 years of experience in research and training and mentorship. She has held numerous research grants in the field of molecular and population genetic studies of disease vectors, vector ecology, and behaviour, insecticide resistance, development and testing of new tools for vector identification, analysis and control. She is widely published and has played a key role in supervised and mentored students and upcoming scientists in the field.

Dr. Kamau also serves as the Deputy Director, Centre for Biotechnology
Research and Development at KEMRI. Dr. Kamau is a member of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences (KNAS), a Fellow of the African Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS).

Education Qualification
  • Diploma (Leadership & Management), Strathmore University, Nairobi, 2011, Distinction
  • Doctor of Philosophy (Molecular Entomology), Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya, 1998
  • Master of Science (Immunology), Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya, 1995
  • Bachelor of Education (Science), Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya, 1991, First Class Honours
Selected Publications
  1. Kariuki S and Kamau L. 2022. A new generation of long-lasting insecticidal nets. The Lancet. Vol. 399, pages 1202 -1203.
  2. Gichuki1 P, Kamau L, Njagi K, Karoki S, Muigai N, Matoke-Muhia D, Bayoh N, Mathenge E and Rajpal Y. 2021. Bioefficacy and durability of Olyset® Plus, a permethrin and piperonyl butoxide treated insecticidal net in a 3-year long trial in Kenya. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 10:135.
  3. Mwagira-Maina S, Runo S, Wachira L, Kitur S, Nyasende S, Kemei B, Ochomo E, Matoke-Muhia D, Mbogo C and Kamau L. 2021. Genetic markers associated with insecticide resistance and resting behaviour in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in selected sites in Kenya. Malaria
    Journal, 20:461.
  4. Kinuthia GK, Ngure V, Kamau L. 2021. Urban mosquitoes and flamentous green algae: their biomonitoring role in heavy metal pollution in open drainage channels in Nairobi industrial area, Kenya. BMC Ecology and Evolution 21:18.
  5. Kinyatta N, Wambua L, Mutahi W, Mugasa C, Kamau L, Wachira D, Githae R, Lusweti J, Ichugu C, Waigi E, and Kagai J. 2021. Optimization of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay as a Point-of-Care Tool for the Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in Human Blood in Tana River
    Delta, Kenya. Journal of Parasitology Research, Volume 2021, Article ID 6650870.
  6. Kamau L, Kitur S, Wachira L, Linusson A. 2021. Insecticide Resistance Surveillance in Anopheles arabiensis in Mwea, Central Kenya: Comparison between field and laboratory testing, 2018. Arthropod Management Tests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2

Dr. Rose Bosire

Department Head, Public Health/ Entomology
  • Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBChB)
  • Masters of Public Health (MPH)
  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Public Health/Epidemiology

Department Head, Public Health/ Entomology
  1. Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mabuka J, Wariua G, Gichuhi C, Wamalwa D, Ruzinski J, Goodman RB, Lohman B, Mbori-Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Farquhar C. Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Feb;23(2):198-203.
  2. Otieno PA, Kohler PK, Bosire RK, Brown ER, Macharia SW, John-Stewart GC. Determinants of failure to access care in mothers referred to HIV treatment programs in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2010 Jun;22
  3. Aluisio A, Richardson BA, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C. Male antenatal attendance and HIV testing are associated with decreased infant HIV infection and increased HIV-free survival. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jan1; 56(1):76-82
  4. Bosire R, Betz B, Aluisio A, Hughes JP, Nduati R, Kiarie J, Chohan BH, Merkel M, Lohman-Payne B, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. High Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Both Arms of a Peer Counseling Study Promoting EBF Among HIV-Infected Kenyan Women. Breastfeed Med. 2016 Mar;11(2):56-63. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2015.0071. Epub 2016 Feb 17
  5. Odeny BM, Pfeiffer J, Farquhar C, Igonya EK, Gatuguta A, Kagwaini F, Nduati R, Kiarie J, Bosire R. The Stigma of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Both HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in Nairobi, Kenya. Breastfeed Med. 2016 Jun;11:252-8. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2016.0014. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
  6. Bosire R, Farquhar C, Nduati R, Broliden K, Luchters S, Van de Perre P, De Vincenzi I, Merkel M, Wachuka V, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart G, Lohman-Payne B, Reilly M. Higher Transplacental Pathogen-Specific Antibody Transfer Among Pregnant Women Randomized to Triple Antiretroviral Treatment Versus Short Course Zidovudine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Mar;37(3):246-252

Dr. Christine Bii

Department Head, Medical Microbiology

Dr. Christine C. Bii has a PhD in Medical Mycology from Kyorin University-Japan. Her research interest is on human mycoses. She has over 25 years of experience in research and training in fungal infections. She established the only Research and Training in Medical Mycology at KEMRI and coordinates the Microbiology (Medical Mycology) course at the KEMRI-Graduate School. She
has mentored over 50 post graduate students and published over 60 manuscripts in peer reviewed journals. Her research focus is on; cryptococcal infections, Candida speciation, antifungal drug resistance, mycotoxicological food safety, aspergillosis and opportunistic fungal infections in NCD. She has a number of active grants addressing fungal infections as emerging yet neglected significant pathogens.

Selected Publications
  1. Peter Koskei, Christine C. Bii, Protus Musotsi and Simon Muturi. Postharvest Storage Practices of Maize in Rift Valley and Lower Eastern Regions of Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Microbiology. Volume 2020 |Article ID 6109214 | 10 pages |  Feb 2020 (View Publication)
  2. Gebreselema Gebreyohannes, Andrew Nyerere, Christine Bii and Desta Berhe Sbhatu. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Indigenous Wild Mushrooms against Pathogenic Organisms. Hindawi Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2019, Article ID 6212673, (View Publication).
  3. Abigael Obura Awuor, Joel Montgomery, Ellen Yard, Collen Martin, Johnni Daniel, Nicholas Zitomer, Michael Rybak, Lauren Lewis, Timothy Phillips, Amelia Romoser, Sarah Elmore, Elvis Oyugi, Samwel Amwayi, Christine Bii & John Vulule (2016): Evaluation of Efficacy, Acceptability and Palatability of Calcium montmorillonite Clay used to reduce aflatoxin B1 dietary exposure in a Crossover study in Kenya, Food Additives & Contaminants: (View Publication)
  4. Langat, G., Tetsuhiro, M., Gonoi, T., Matiru, V. and Bii, C. (2016) Aflatoxin M1
    Contamination of Milk and Its Products in Bomet County, Kenya. Advances in Microbiology, 6, 528-536. (View Publication)
  5. Martha F. Mushi , Conjester I. Mtemisika, Oliver Bader , Christine Bii C, Mariam M. Mirambo, Uwe Groß, Stephen E. Mshana High Oral Carriage of Non-albicans Candida spp. among HIV-infected individuals. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 49 (2016) 185– 188. (View Publication)
  6. John A Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Kenya. J Infect Dev Ctries 2016; 10(8):777-784. doi:10.3855/jidc.

Dr. Joseph Mwangi

Faculty Member

Dr Mwangi J. is a graduate of medical lab sciences with an MSc Immunology and PhD in Medical Virology. Currently, Dr heads the HIV research Division, CVR KEMRI. Responsibilities involve Management and Coordination of research, capacity building and service provision in the division. As a PI, His role involves the whole research spectrum, from proposal development, application for funding, implementation of protocols and research management and dissemination. In addition, Training, collaborations and engagements for
research-practice partnerships and policy.

Through the years dr. Joseph has contributed to development of over 10 HIV related Policies and guidelines. My research interest and activities are in HIV AIDS and Co-infections. Specifically, Molecular epidemiology Research
in HIV/AIDS/Co-infections, Drug resistance studies and COVID-19 antigen and sero-surveillance studies. An adjunct faculty at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture, technology, and previously Nazarene university Kenya and the Kenya Medical Training College, Nairobi

Faculty Member
  1. Essentials of laboratory supervision Programs in resource limited settings 2022(Draft-in process) Mwangi Joseph et al.
  2. Quality Management systems in HIV&AIDS; A Handbook for HTC programs in developing countries. Mwangi Joseph, Joyceline Kinyua, Nancy Lagat, Muriuki Joseph, Emma Mwangi, Angella Silla, Peter Maingi, Carol Mbeyu, 2013.Available at : (Click Here)
Selected In Peer reviewed Journals
  1. What are the Missed Opportunities in Prevention Interventions for HBV, HCV and HIV among Key Populations along the Northern Transport Corridor in Kenya? Mwangi J, Muasya T, Mwai E, Kinyua J, Olungae D, et al. J Infect Dis Epidemiol (2022) 8:249. (View Publication)
  2. Sero-Mapping of HBV, HCV,HSV2 and syphilis across regions in Kenya. Mwangi Joseph, Solomon Mpoke, Dama Olungae, Rency Lel, Zipporah Ng’anga. Journal of biology, Agriculture and health care (2019) Vol.9, No.12.
  3. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Kenya. Mwangi Joseph, Zipporah NGANGA, Solomon MPOKE, Raphael LIHANA, Joyceline KINYUA, Nancy LAGAT, Joseph MURIUKI, Rency Lel, Sheila KAGEHA, Saida OSMAN, and Hiroshi ICHIMURA, Arch Virol. (2016) 161:95–101.
  4. Switch from 200 to 350 CD4 baseline count: what it means to HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya. Mwangi Joseph, Zipporah Ngángá, Raphael Lihana, Nancy Lagat, Joyceline Kinyua et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. July 2012; 12:80.
  5. Molecular genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus in Kenya. Mwangi Joseph, Nganga Z, Songok E, Kinyua J, Lagat N, Muriuki J, Lihana R, Khamadi S, Osman S, Lwembe R, et al. Intervirology. 2009 Mar 4; 51(6):417-421.
  6. High Frequency of Drug Resistance Mutations among Newly Diagnosed HIV-1 Infected Infants in Kenya. Sheila Kageha, Dama Olungae, Matilda Saina, Matilu M. Mwau, Bi X, Raphael W.Lihana, Joseph Mwangi, Hiroshi Ichimura and Elijah M. Songok. AIDS Journal, under review, 2022.

Dr. Edward Githinji

Faculty Member
Education & Training Background
Institution Field of Study Dates Achievement
Kenya Medical Research Institute Entomology & Parasitology 2012-to date Senior Research Scientist
University of Nairobi, Kenya PhD in Applied Parasitology 2009-2020 PhD
Kenya Medical Research Institute PhD Project 2009 -2020 Post Graduate Research Assistant
Kenya Medical Research Institute Msc. Project 2005-2007 Graduate Research Assistant
University of Nairobi, Kenya Applied Parasitology 2004-2007 MSc. Applied Parasitology
Egerton University, Kenya Botany, Zoology & Education 1992-1996 B.Ed. (Science)
Selected Publications
  1. Githinji EK, Irungu LW, Tonui WK, Rukunga GM, Mutai C, Muthaura CN, Lugalia R, Gikandi G, Wainaina CW, Ingonga JM, Wanjoya A. In vitro effects of Warburgia ugandensis, Psiadia punctulata and Chasmanthera dependens on Leishmania major promastigotes. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010 Apr 3; 7(3):264-75
  2. Edward K. Githinji, Lucy W. Irungu, Paul N. Ndegwa, Maxwell G. Machani, Richard O. Amito, Brigid J. Kemei, Paul N. Murima, Geoffrey M. Ombui, Antony K. Wanjoya, Charles M. Mbogo & Evan M. Mathenge. Impact of Insecticide Resistance on P. falciparum Vectors’ Biting, Feeding, and Resting Behaviour in Selected Clusters in Teso North and South Subcounties in Busia County, Western Kenya. Journal of Parasitology Volume 2020, Article ID 9423682.
  3. Edward K. Githinji, Lucy W. Irungu, Paul N. Ndegwa, Maxwell G. Machani, Richard O. Amito, Brigid J. Kemei, Paul N. Murima, Geoffrey M. Ombui, Antony K. Wanjoya, Charles M. Mbogo & Evan M. Mathenge. Species
    Composition, Phenotypic and Genotypic Resistance Levels in Major Malaria Vectors in Teso North and Teso South Subcounties in Busia County, Western Kenya. Journal of Parasitology V2020: 3560310
  4. J Mwai, E Githinji, A Odiwuor, C Oduor, G Kotonya , S Njenga, C Mwandawiro. Assessment of Pupils’ Knowledge and Practices towards Prevention and Control of Tungiasis Infestation in Ugenya Sub County,
    Kenya. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Volume No: 1
  5. Judy Mwai, Mohamed H. Abdi and E. Githinji. Factors Associated with Tungiasis Infestation among School age Children in Ugenya Sub-County, Siaya County, Kenya. African Journals Online; Vol. 33 No. 4
  6. Collins Okoyo, Edward Githinji, Ruth W. Muia, Janet Masaku, Judy Mwai, Lilian Nyandieka, Stephen Munga, Sammy M. Njenga and Henry M. Kanyi. Assessment of malaria infection among pregnant women and children below five years of age attending rural health facilities of Kenya: A cross-sectional survey in two counties of Kenya. PLoS ONE 16(9): e0257276

Dr. Erastus Mulinge

Faculty Member

Dr. Mulinge’s research interests span across disease surveillance and diagnostics, One Health, and molecular epidemiology of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic parasitic diseases. His research has focused on the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and cystic echinococcosis in humans, domestic and wild animals.

Education Qualification
  • Post-doctoral Fellow – Hokkaido University
  • Doctor of Philosophy – University of Nairobi
  • Master of Science (Biochemistry) – University of KwaZulu-Natal
  • Bachelor of Science (Biochemistry) – Kenyatta University
Selected Publications
  1. Mulinge, E., Mbae, C., Ngugi, B., Irungu, T., Matey, E., Kariuki, S. (2021). Entamoeba species infection in patients seeking treatment for diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort in Mukuru informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Food Waterborne Parasitol. 23 (2021) e00122.
  2. Mulinge, E., Odongo, D., Magambo, J., Njenga, S., Zeyhle, E., Mbae, C., Kagendo, D., Addy, F., Ebi, D., Wassermann, M., Kern, P., Romig, T. (2020). Diversity of Taenia and Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in domestic dogs in Kenya. Parasitol. Res.119(9):2863-2875
  3. Mulinge, E., Magambo, J., Odongo, D., Njenga, S., Zeyhle, E., Mbae, C., Kagendo, D., Addy, F., Ebi, D., Wassermann, M., Kern, P., Romig, T. (2018). Molecular characterization of Echinococcus species in dogs from four regions of Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 255, 49-57.
  4. Mbae, C., Mulinge, E., Guleid, F., Wainaina, J., Waruru, A., Njiru, Z.K., Kariuki, S.
    (2016). Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in children in Kenya. BMC Infect. Dis. 16, 135.
  5. Kang’ethe, E.K., Mulinge, E.K., Skilton, R.A., Monda, J.G., Nyongesa, C.N., Mbae,
    C.K., Kamwati, S.K. (2012). Cryptosporidium species detected in calves and cattle in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. Suppl. 1, 25-31.
  6. Gatei, W., Wamae, C.N., Mbae, C., Waruru, A., Mulinge, E., Waithera, T., Gatika, S.M., Kamwati, S.K., Revathi, G. and Hart, C.A. (2006). Cryptosporidiosis: prevalence, genotype analysis, and symptoms associated with infections in children in Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75(1):78-82

Dr. Edith Limbaso

Faculty Member

Dr. Limbaso is an experienced Research Scientist with a strong track record in Serology, Molecular Biology, Cell Culture, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and Research in vector- borne and zoonotic diseases. Strong research professional with a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) focused in Medical Virology from University of Pretoria, South Africa.

Educational Qualifications
  • PhD in Medical Virology from University of Pretoria, South Africa
  • MSc. in Medical Virology from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
  • BSc. in Biomedical Science and Technology from Egerton University
Selected Publications
  1. Mutisya J, Kahato M, Mulwa F, Langat S, Chepkorir E, et al. Evaluating the vector competence of Aedes simpsoni sl from Kenyan coast for Ngari and Bunyamwera viruses. PLOS ONE, 2021, 16(7): e0253955.
  2. Lutomiah, J., Mulwa, F., Mutisya, J., Koskei, E., Langat, S., Nyunja, A., Koka, H.,
    Konongoi, S., Chepkorir, E., Ofula, V., Owaka, S., Eyase, F., & Sang, R. Probable
    contribution of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to the circulation of chikungunya virus during an outbreak in Mombasa County, Kenya, 2017-2018. Parasites & vectors. 2021, 14(1), 138.
  3. Kimata Y, Borus P, Nzunza R, Ofula V, Chepkorir E, Waihenya R, Sang R. Serological evidence of chikungunya virus infection among suspected measles cases in selected regions of Kenya: 2008-2014. Vector-borne zoonotic dis. 2020, 20(12):903-909.
  4. Tigoi C, Sang R, Chepkorir E, Orindi B, Arum SO, Mulwa F, Mosomtai G, Limbaso S, Hassan O. A, Irura Z, Ahlm C, Evander M. High risk for human exposure to Rift Valley fever virus in communities living along livestock movement routes: A cross-sectional survey in Kenya. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2020, 14(2): e0007979
  5. E. Chepkorir, D. P. Tchouassi, S. L. Konongoi, J. Lutomiah, C. Tigoi, Z. Irura, F.
    Eyase, M. Venter, R. Sang. Serological evidence of Flavivirus circulation in human populations in Northern Kenya: an assessment of disease risk 2016–2017. Virology Journal, 2019, 16:65

Dr. Martin Mutuku

Faculty Member
  • Doctor of Philosophy (Applied Parasitology) 2020, University of Nairobi
  • Master of Science (Medical Parasitology & Entomology) 2015, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Bachelor of Science (1st Class Honors) Medical Microbiology, 2011, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Higher National Diploma (Credit) Applied Biology, 2008, The Kenya Polytechnic
  • Diploma (Credit) Applied Biology, 2004, Kabete Technical Training Institute, Kenya
Selected Publications
  1. Martin W. Mutuku, Martina R. Laidemitt, Johannie M. Spaan, Ibrahim N. Mwangi, Horace Ochanda, Michelle L. Steinauer, Eric S. Loker, Gerald M. Mkoji. Comparative vectorial competence of Biomphalaria sudanica and Biomphalaria choanomphala, snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, from transmission hotspots in Lake Victoria, western Kenya. Journal of parasitology 107(2) 349–357 (2021).
  2. Eric L. Agola, Ibrahim N. Mwangi, Geoffrey M. Maina, Joseph M. Kinuthia, Martin W. Mutuku. Transmission sites for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis identified in localities within the Athi River basin of Kenya using a PCR-RFLP assay. Heliyon; 7 (2) e06114. (2021)
  3. Laidemitt M. R., Anderson L. C., Wearing H. J., Mutuku M. W., Mkoji G. M., Loker E. S. Antagonism between parasites within snail hosts impacts the transmission of human schistosomiasis. Elife; 17:8 (2019)
  4. Mutuku M. W, Laidemitt MR, Beechler BR, Mwangi IN, Otiato FO, Agola EL,
    Ochanda H, Kamel B, Mkoji GM, Steinauer ML, Loker ES. A Search for Snail-Related Answers to Explain Differences in Response of Schistosoma mansoni to Praziquantel Treatment among Responding and Persistent Hotspot Villages along the Kenyan Shore of Lake Victoria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 101(1):65-77 (2019)
  5. Laidemitt MR, Brant SV, Mutuku MW, Mkoji GM, Loker ES. The diverse echinostomes from East Africa: With a focus on species that use Biomphalaria and Bulinus as intermediate hosts. Acta Tropica; 193:38-49. (2019)
  6. Si-Ming Zhang, Lijing Bu, Martina R. Laidemitt, Lijun Lu, Martin W. Mutuku,
    Gerald M. Mkoji, Eric S. Loker. Complete mitochondrial and rDNA complex
    sequences of important vector species of Biomphalaria, obligatory hosts of the human-infecting blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni Scientific Reports volume 8, Article number: 7341(2018)

Dr. Cecilia Mbae

Faculty Member

Dr. Mbar joined KEMRI in 2004, as a Research Officer. Since then she has participated in several Research projects, either as a Principal Investigator or Co-Investigator. In addition, she has been  tasked with managing 4 research projects that are currently ongoing.

Dr. Mbae’s Research focuses on molecular epidemiology of emerging, re-emerging and neglected parasitic and bacterial pathogens, and surveillance on antimicrobial resistance. The projects are funded by different funding agencies including Wellcome Trust (UK), National Institute of Health
(USA), and German Research Foundation (DFG) among others. All the projects have had basic microbiology and advanced molecular biology techniques.

Currently, Dr. Mbae has a pool of over 30 young scientists, and is supervising 5 post graduate students. Through her research, she has been able to publish more than 30 papers in peer-reviewed journals. She has disseminated
research findings through conferences and other forums.

Dr. Mbae has more than ten years experience teaching at the Kenya Methodist University and 3 years experience teaching the the KEMRI graduate school.

Education Qualifications
  • Doctor of Philosophy in Life and Molecular Sciences, Open University, UK, Research
    Topic: Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia an HIV+/- children in slum areas of Nairobi, Kenya
  • M.Sc. (Medical Parasitology), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
  • B.Sc. (Biochemistry/ Zoology), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Selected Publications
  1. Kariuki S, Wairimu C, Mbae C. Antimicrobial Resistance in Endemic Enteric
    Infections in Kenya and the Region, and Efforts Toward Addressing the Challenges. J Infect Dis. 2021 Dec 20;224(12 Suppl 2):S883-S889. doi:
    10.1093/infdis/jiab457.PMID: 34550365(View Publication)
  2. Kariuki S, Dyson ZA, Mbae C, Ngetich R, Kavai SM, Wairimu C, Anyona S, Gitau N, Onsare RS, Ongandi B, Duchene S, Ali M, Clemens JD, Holt KE, Dougan. Multiple introductions of multidrug-resistant typhoid associated with acute infection and asymptomatic carriage, Kenya. G.Elife. 2021 Sep 13;10:e67852. doi: 10.7554/eLife.67852.PMID: 34515028 (View Publication)
  3.  Mulinge E, Mbae C, Ngugi B, Irungu T, Matey E, Kariuki S. Entamoeba species infection in patients seeking treatment for diarrhea and abdominal discomfort in Mukuru informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Food Waterborne Parasitol. 2021 Mar 29;23:e00122. doi: 10.1016/j.fawpar.2021.e00122. eCollection 2021 Jun.PMID: 33898796 (View Publication)
  4. Cecilia Kathure Mbae, Ph.D; Moses Mwangi, MSc; Naomi Gitau, Msc; Tabitha Irungu; Fidelis Muendo; Zilla Wakio; Ruth Wambui; Susan Kavai, Msc; Robert Onsare; Celestine Wairimu; Ronald Ngetich; Frida Njeru; Sandra Van Puyvelde; John Clemens; Gordon. Dougan; Samuel Kariuki. Factors associated with occurrence of invasive Salmonella infections among children living in Mukuru slum, an urban informal settlement in Kenya. BMC Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:422 (View Publication)
  5. Samuel Kariuki; Cecilia Mbae; Sandra Van Puyvelde; Robert Onsare; Susan Kavai; Celestine Wairimu; Ronald Ngetich; John Clemens; Gordon Dougan. High relatedness of invasive multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella genotypes among patients and asymptomatic carriers in endemic informal settlements in Kenya” PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Aug 3;14(8):e0008440. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008440. eCollection 2020 Aug
  6. Erastus Mulinge, David Odongo, Japhet Magambo, Sammy M. Njenga, Eberhard Zeyhle, Cecilia Mbae, Dorothy Kagendo, Francis Addy, Dennis Ebi, Marion Wassermann, Peter Kern, Thomas Romig. Diversity of Taenia and Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in domestic dogs in Kenya. Parasitology Research (View Publication) Received: 1 February 2020/Accepted: 30 June 2020

Dr. Evans Chadeka

Faculty Member

Dr. Evans Chadeka is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the KEMRI Graduate School of Health Sciences. Recently, Dr. Chadeka was awarded a Career Development Fellowship grant from the European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) for his project on identifying potential morbidity markers for intestinal schistosomiasis/bilharzia.  The project is part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union (grant number TMA2019CDF-2746).

Education Qualifications
  • PhD in Medical Science in Infection Research – Nagasaki University, Japan: March 2019
  • Master of Public Health (MPH) – Moi University, Kenya: December 2010
  • Bachelor of Science (Microbiology) – Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya: July 2005
Selected Publications
  1. Mio T, Anna OK, Chadeka EA, Cheruiyot BN, Sassa M, et al (2021) Potential of antibody test using Schistosoma mansoni recombinant serpin and RP26 to detect light-intensity infections in endemic areas. Parasitology International 83-102346
  2. Sassa M, Chadeka EA, Cheruiyot NB, Mio T, Moriyasu T et al (2020) Prevalence and risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection among children under two years of age in Mbita, western Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. (14) (View Publication)
  3. Chadeka EA, Nagi S, Cheruiyot NB, Bahati F, Sunahara T, et al (2019) A highintensity cluster of Schistosoma mansoni infection around Mbita causeway, western
    Kenya: a confirmatory cross-sectional survey. Tropical Medicine and Health 47:26. (View Publication)
  4. Inoue M, Niki M, Ozeki Y, Nagi S, Chadeka EA, et al (2018) High-density
    lipoprotein suppresses tumor necrosis factor alpha production by mycobacteria infected human macrophages. Sci Rep. 30; 8(1):6736. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018- 24233-1.
  5. Caroline Kijogi, Daisuke Kimura, Lam Quoc Bao, Risa Nakamura, Chadeka EA, et al (2018) Modulation of immune responses by Plasmodium falciparum infection in asymptomatic children living in the endemic region of Mbita, western Kenya. Parasitology International 67(3): 284-293.
  6. Chadeka EA, Nagi S, Sunahara T, Cheruiyot NB, Bahati F, et al (2017) Spatial distribution and risk factors of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections among schoolchildren in Kwale, Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 11(9): e0005872. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005872

Dr. Juliann Makau

Faculty Member

Dr. Makau is a research scientist at KEMRI and a postdoctoral researcher at the KEMRI Graduate School of Health Sciences. She is a holder of a Career Development Fellowship funded by the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) for a period of three years from 2020-2023.

Her study titled ‘Determination of HIV-1 drug resistance among patients failing second-line treatment in Kenya using an in-house phenotypic assay’ aims at developing and validating a novel assay for isolating infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from clinical samples and testing for drug resistance. The global efforts to combat the HIV pandemic are being hampered by the increasing prevalence of resistance to HIV drugs. The testing of HIV drug resistance is crucial in determining the best treatment regimen especially for patients with a history of treatment failure. Though there are assays commercially available for HIV drug resistance testing, they
mainly rely on amplifying selected genes of the virus and this leaves out minor drug resistant variants as well as other genes of the virus that may also confer resistance.

In this project, a new assay will be developed that will enable us to capture and isolate infectious HIV from clinical samples and test for resistance. This study will give insights into the complexity of HIV drug resistance in Kenya and assist to guide the selection of effective treatment regimens for optimal viral suppression. This project is part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union (Grant number: TMA2019CDF-2716)

Education Qualifications

Dr. Makau holds a PhD in Medical Sciences (2017) and a MSc in Pharmaceutical Sciences (2013) from Nagasaki University in Japan, and a BSc in Medical Laboratory Science (2011) from Kenyatta University.

Selected Publications
  1. Satoshi Mizuta, Hiroki Otaki, Takeshi Ishikawa, Juliann Nzembi Makau, Tomoko Yamaguchi, Hikaru Nono, Ryo Nishi, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Noriyuki Nishida, Ken Watanabe. Lead optimization of influenza virus RNA polymerase inhibitors targeting PA-PB1 interaction. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2022; 65(1):369-385. (View Publication)
  2. Juliann Nzembi Makau, Ken Watanabe, Hiroki Otaki, Satoshi Mizuta, Takeshi Ishikawa, Yuji O. Kamatari, Noriyuki Nishida. A quinolinone compound inhibiting the oligomerization of nucleoprotein of influenza A virus prevents the selection of escape mutants. Viruses. 2020; 12(3):E337. (View Publication)
  3. Juliann Nzembi Makau, Ayako Kitagawa, Kanami Kitamura, Tomoko Yamaguchi, Satoshi Mizuta. Design and development of an HBT-based ratiometric fluorescent probe to monitor stress-induced premature senescence. ACS Omega, 2020;5(20):11299-11307. (View Publication)
  4. Makoto Sumiyoshi, Taiga Miyazaki, Juliann Nzembi Makau, Satoshi Mizuta,
    Yoshimasa Tanaka, Takeshi Ishikawa, Koichi Makimura, Tatsuro Hirayama, Takahiro Takazono, Tomomi Saijo, Shintaro Shimamura, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Shigeru Kohno, Hiroshi Mukae Novel and potent antimicrobial effects of caspofungin on drug-resistant Candida and bacteria. Scientific Reports. 2020;10(1):17745. (View Publication)
  5. Ratika Rahmasari, Heri Setiawan, Rezi Riadhi Syahdi, Ayun Arifianti, Marina Ika Irianti, Rani Sauriasari, Juliann Nzembi Makau, Muhareva Raekiansyah. SARS-CoV-2: Virology and Drug Repurposing Approaches. Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research. 2020;7 (Special Issue on COVID-19):29-38. (View Publication)
  6. Satoshi Mizuta, Juliann Nzembi Makau, Ayako Kitagawa, Kanami Kitamura, Hiroki Otaki, Kodai Nishi, Ken Watanabe. Synthesis of trifluoromethyl-α,β-unsaturated lactones and pyrazolinones and discovery of influenza virus polymerase inhibitors. ChemMedChem. 2018; 13(22):2390-2399. (View Publication)