Dr. Erick Muok, KEMRI CGHR

Dr. Erick Muok

Ag. Deputy Director

Dr. Erick Muok is an experienced researcher and public health manager.

He has been a Principal and co-principal investigator and a manager in several projects in western Kenya providing technical support, logistic, administrative and financial management support in areas of health system strengthening, nutrition, parasite Immunology resistance, targeted NTDs like Schistosomiasis and other soil transmitted helminths.

In addition, he is a former Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Emory University, Emory Vaccine center, Atlanta GA providing technical advice, monitoring and evaluation and support to technical staff including ensuring that their objectives are set, work plans developed and implemented, and their performance is regularly reviewed.

He is a fully Trained Clinical Trial Monitor (CRA – Clinical Trial associate) and a management graduate from Kenya School of Government (KSG) on Strategic Leadership and Management.  Regional coordinator for Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) node within the East African consortium for clinical trials (EACCR) network of excellence (eaccr.org).

Relevant Specialized/ Technical Training

Clinical research associate (CRA) training, under East African Consortium for Clinical Research (EACCR-2) regional capacity building Scheme – January 2019

Advanced Science on Vaccines and Vaccinology course, organized by the Sao Paulo School of Advanced Science on Vaccines – Nov/Dec 2018

 Strategic Leadership and Management, Kenya School of Government (KSG) – March to May 2018

Essential Grant Writing Skills Workshop, organized by African Research Excellence Fund (AREF) – May 2017

Vaccinology in Africa: A 5-day Master’s Level Course organized by the Jenner Institute – April 2017.

 Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies – Advanced Course in Basic & Clinical Immunology Travel award by IUIS, 2011.

Training on Principles of HIV research sponsored by NIH, 2011.

 Immunology of the tropics Training course. Organized by Makerere/UVRI Infection and Immunity Training Program, 2010.

 Designing and preparing effective scientific posters.  Organized by Training Center for Communications (TCC) and School of Biological Sciences – University of Nairobi. 2007

Effective Scientific communications and publishing.  Organized by Training (TCC) and School of Biological Sciences – University of Nairobi. 2007

Major Achievements

Analysis full genome sequencing data and Development of novel HIV Infectious Molecular Clone viruses derived from acutely infected Rwandan patient samples in the Hunter Lab, Emory Vaccine center

Successful Virology Technology Transfer to Rwanda-Zambia HIV Group (RZHRG) at Projet San Francisco (PSF) in Kigali, Rwanda including RNA Extraction, cDNA synthesis and Near Full Length Genome Amplification (NFLG) among others

Establishment of Immunology Lab facility within KEMRI/CGHR (2004-2008) including Flow cytometry assays alongside two other senior KEMRI Scientists with NIH grant “Determinants of resistance in Human schistosomiasis project

Selected Publications

First-author publications

  1. Muok EM, in’t Veld DH, Ogola GO, Karanja DM, Colebunders R, and Pauline MN Mwinzi. (May 2018) Schistosoma mansoni- Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-Schistosomiasis Co-Infected Patients Undergoing Antiretroviral Treatment. Ann Clin Pathol 6(2): 1135.
  2. Erick M. O. Muok, Elses W. Simiyu, Elizabeth A. Ochola, Zipporah W. Ng’ang’a, W. Evan Secor, Diana M. S. Karanja, AND Pauline N. M. Mwinzi. Association Between CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts and Fecal Excretion of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in Patients Coinfected with S. mansoni and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Before and After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013; 89(1): 42-45.
  3. Muok EMO, Onguru DO, Karanja DM, Mwinzi PNM, Nganga ZW and Ofula VA. Participation of Fishing Communities in Neglected Tropical Disease/HIV Co-infection Cohort Studies in Western Kenya. J Trop Dis 2013; 1: 104. doi:10.4172/ jtd.1000104.
  4. Erick M. O. Mouk*, Pauline N. M. Mwinzi , Carla L. Black , Jennifer M. Carter , Zipporah W. Ng’ang’a , Michael M. Gicheru , W. Evan Secor , Diana M. S. Karanja , and Daniel G. Colley (2009).  Childhood Coinfections with Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma mansoni Result in Lower Percentages of Activated T Cells and T Regulatory Memory Cells than Schistosomiasis Only.  Am J Trop Med Hyg 80 (3): 475-478. PMCID: PMC2821587
  5. Erick M.O Muok, PhD*; Vincent Were, PhD1 Charles O. Obonyo, PhD1 (In press). Efficacy of artesunate + sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine versus praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni in Kenyan children

Other peer-reviewed publications

  1. Obonyo CO, Muok EMMO, Were V. Biannual praziquantel treatment for schistosomiasis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, issue 8. CD013412.
  2. Goovaerts O, Mwinzi PNM, Muok EMO, Ceulemans A, Colebunders R, Kestens L (2018). Aberrant plasma MMP and TIMP dynamics in Schistosoma – Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(8): e0006710. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006710
  3. Ondigo BN, Muok EMO, Oguso JK, Njenga SM, Kanyi HM, Ndombi EM, Priest JW, Kittur N, Secor WE, Karanja DMS and Colley DG (June 2018) Impact of Mothers’ Schistosomiasis Status During Gestation on Children’s IgG Antibody Responses to Routine Vaccines 2 Years Later and Anti-Schistosome and Anti-Malarial Responses by Neonates in Western Kenya. Front. Immunol. 9:1402. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01402
  4. Ogola GO, Ouma C, Jura WG, Muok EO, Colebunders R, Mwinzi PN. A non-synonymous polymorphism in IL-23R Gene (rs1884444) is associated with reduced risk to schistosomiasis-associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Kenyan population.  BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 10; 14:316. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-316.
  5. Sara E Butler, Erick M Muok, Susan P Montgomery, Keziah Odhiambo, Pauline M N Mwinzi, W Evan Secor and Diana M S Karanja. Mechanism of Anemia in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected School Children in Western Kenya (2012).  . Am J Trop Med Hyg Nov 7, 2012; 87(5): 862–867
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Eric Odhiambo Ochomo

Head of Entomology Division
Education

Education: BSc, MSc and PhD Biomedical Science and Technology, Medical Entomology and Vector Science major from Maseno University, Kenya. Research Fellow – American Society of Microbiology and Centers for Disease Control (ASM/CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.Consultancies:Development of the Kenya Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) Plan 2019-2024 to guide the implementation of insecticide resistance management by the Kenya National Malaria Control ProgramDevelopment of the Kenya Mosquito Surveillance Guidelines 2019-2024 to support the Kenya National Malaria Control Program.Consultant for the MENTOR Initiative on protocol development and entomological surveillance for the Evaluation of a novel household vector control kit against Aedes and Anopheles mosquitos in conflict prone areas project implemented in Wajir County, Kenya.

Selected Publications

  1. Lucas, E. R., K. A. Rockett, A. Lynd, J. Essandoh, N. Grisales, B. Kemei, H. Njoroge, C. Hubbart, E. J. Rippon, J. Morgan, A. E. Van’t Hof, E. O. Ochomo, D. P. Kwiatkowski, D. Weetman, and M. J. Donnelly. 2019. A high throughput multi-locus insecticide resistance marker panel for tracking resistance emergence and spread in Anopheles gambiae. Scientific Reports 9: 13335.
  2. Agumba S, Gimnig JE, Ogonda L, Ombok M, Kosgei J, Munga S, Guyah B, Omondi S, Ochomo E. Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya. Malar J. 2019 Jul 17;18(1):243. doi: 10.1186/s12936-019-2858-z. PMID: 31315614; PMCID: PMC6637467.
  3. Sedda L, Lucas ER, Djogbénou LS, Edi AVC, Egyir-Yawson A, Kabula BI, Midega J, Ochomo E, Weetman D, Donnelly MJ. Improved spatial ecological sampling using open data and standardization: an example from malaria mosquito surveillance. J R Soc Interface. 2019 Apr 26;16(153):20180941. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2018.0941. PubMed PMID: 30966952. 
  4. Gimnig JE, Ochomo ENew opportunities for malaria vector control. Lancet. 2018 Aug 18;392(10147):534-536. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31817-8. Epub 2018 Aug 10. 
  5. Smit MR, Ochomo EO, Aljayyoussi G, Kwambai TK, Abong’o BO, Chen T, Bousema T, Slater HC, Waterhouse D, Bayoh NM, Gimnig JE, Samuels AM, Desai MR, Phillips-Howard PA, Kariuki SK, Wang D, Ward SA, Ter Kuile FO. Safety and mosquitocidal efficacy of high-dose ivermectin when co-administered with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Kenyan adults with uncomplicated malaria (IVERMAL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jun;18(6):615-626. 
  6. Ochomo E, Chahilu M, Cook J, Kinyari T, Bayoh NM, West P, Kamau L, Osangale A, Ombok M, Njagi K, Mathenge E, Muthami L, Subramaniam K, Knox T, Mnavaza A, Donnelly MJ, Kleinschmidt I, Mbogo C. Insecticide-Treated Nets and Protection against Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors in Western Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 May;23(5):758-764. 
  7. Ochomo E, Subramaniam K, Kemei B, Rippon E, Bayoh NM, Kamau L, Atieli F, Vulule JM, Ouma C, Gimnig J, Donnelly MJ, Mbogo C. Presence of the knockdown resistance mutation, Vgsc-1014F in Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis in western Kenya. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Dec 1;8:616. 
  8. Bonizzoni M, Ochomo E, Dunn WA, Britton M, Afrane Y, Zhou G, Hartsel J, Lee MC, Xu J, Githeko A, Fass J, Yan G. RNA-seq analyses of changes in the Anopheles gambiae transcriptome associated with resistance to pyrethroids in Kenya: identification of candidate-resistance genes and candidate-resistance SNPs. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Sep 17;8:474. 
  9. Ochomo E, Bayoh NM, Kamau L, Atieli F, Vulule J, Ouma C, Ombok M, Njagi K, Soti D, Mathenge E, Muthami L, Kinyari T, Subramaniam K, Kleinschmidt I, Donnelly MJ, Mbogo C. Pyrethroid susceptibility of malaria vectors in four Districts of western Kenya. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Jul 4; 7:310. 
  10. Knox TB, Juma EO, Ochomo EO, Pates Jamet H, Ndungo L, Chege P, Bayoh NM, N’Guessan R, Christian RN, Hunt RH, Coetzee M. An online tool for mapping insecticide resistance in major Anopheles vectors of human malaria parasites and review of resistance status for the Afrotropical region. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Feb 21;7:76. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-76. PubMed PMID: 24559061; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3942210.

Victor O. Mudhune

HIV Research Division Lead

Dr Mudhune is a public health researcher/clinical trialist, with significant experience in clinical trial management, ethical concerns in human subjects, protocol preparation and research implementation. He is a Principal Clinical Research Scientist at the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centre for Global Health Research (KEMRI/CGHR), implementing several research protocols, and leads the HIV Research Division within the CDC funded KEMRI/LSTM/WSU Consortium in Kisumu. His passion is in the intersection between science and management, with a very strong background in research and good knowledge of management principles.

His research interest is in interventions targeting HIV, including therapeutic options for both HIV prevention and treatment. He has served as principal investigator in CDC and US NIH funded studies including evaluation of treatment alternatives for HIV infected individuals who have failed second line therapy, novel mobile phone based game technology aimed at reducing risk of HIV acquisition in adolescents, and an intravaginal ring containing tenofovir alone and in combination with levonogestrel for preventing transmission of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy. He has also evaluated various HIV point-of-care devices to answer key questions of placement, effectiveness, feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness.

Academic and Professional Profile
  1. Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health (Ongoing). Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology – Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases / KEMRI Graduate School of Health Sciences
  2. Post-Graduate Certificate in Modelling for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, School of Health and Related Research (SCHARR), University of Sheffield
  3. Master of Science in Public Health (MPH), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), University of London
  4. Master of Business Administration (MBA), Operations Management, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi
  5. Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm), College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi
Selected Publications
  1. Mudhune V, Sabben G, Ondenge K, Mbeda C, Morales M, Lyles R, Arego J, Ndivo R, Bednarczyk R, Komro K, Winskell K. Efficacy Trial for a Smartphone Game to Prevent HIV among Young Africans: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Context of COVID-19. JMIR Res Protoc. 2022 Jan 11. doi: 10.2196/35117. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35030090.
  2. Winskell, K., Sabben, G., Akelo, V., Ondeng’e, K., Odero, I. and Mudhune, V., 2020. A smartphone game to prevent HIV among young Kenyans: local perceptions of mechanisms of effect. Health Education Research, 35(3), pp.153-164.
  3. Oketch D, Kaguiri EC, Orinda JO, Mboya G, Ogutu P, Lando R, Juma C, Ndivo R, Ontieri DO, Madiega PA, Oloo F, Oruko J, Akello R, Wandera K, Odipo E, Greene E, Andrew P, Mudhune V, Akelo V. Emerging trends in contraceptive use, transitions and preferences among female sex workers screened for an HIV prevention clinical trial in Kisumu, Kenya: a cross-sectional study Gates Open Research 2019, 3:1505
  4. Gross R, Ritz J, Hughes MD, Salata R, Mugyenyi P, Hogg E, Wieclaw L, Godfrey C, Wallis CL, Mellors JW, Mudhune VO, Badal-Faesen S, Grinsztjen B, Collier A. Two-way mobile phone intervention compared with standard-of-care adherence support after second-line antiretroviral therapy failure: a multinational, randomized controlled trial. The Lancet Digital Health. 2019 May 1;1(1):e26-34.
  5. Arego J, Ondenge K, Odero I, Awuonda E, Omoro T, Akelo V, Mudhune V, Gust D.A. Medical pluralism and rationalities for HIV care utilization among discordant couples in Siaya County, rural western Kenya. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 2019 March, 0(0) 1–7.
  6. Odero I, Ondeng’e K, Mudhune V, Okola P, Oruko J, Otieno G, Akelo V, Gust DA. Participant satisfaction with clinical trial experience and post-trial transitioning to HIV care in Kenya. International journal of STD & AIDS. 2019 Jan;30(1):12-9
Dr. Stephen Munga

Dr. Stephen Munga

Research Officer

Dr. Stephen Munga is a highly experienced, researcher, technical advisor and public health manager. He has been a technical advisor to World Health Organization in Kenya, Botswana, Namibia and Uganda Malaria Program Reviews (MPRs).He has conducted desk review of Malaria Epidemic Preparedness and Response/Indoor Residual Spray program and Vector Control components of the National Malaria Control Programs and wrote two  manuscripts from the Kenya Malaria Review Program Final Report.

Dr. Munga is part of the team that reviewed guidelines used for Malaria Program Reviews used for Epidemic Preparedness and Response (EPR) other guidelines by WHO Inter-Country Support Team (WHO-IST, Harare) in Victoria Falls.Dr. Munga, participated in writing the National Malaria Strategy (2009 – 2017), Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Policy for Kenya and Technical Guidelines for Epidemic Preparedness and Response for Kenya.

He has been a technical advisor, for a Health System Strengthening Program in North Eastern Province, Kenya for two years and wrote Annual Reports to the funding organization (COMIC Relief), a, technical advisor to program on evaluation ZeroVector (durable wall lining) and Indoor Residual Spray in Liberia.Besides, has been a co-principal investigator and a manager in several projects in western Kenya and North Eastern regions providing technical support, logistic, administrative and financial support in areas of health system strengthening, insecticide resistance, evaluation of durable wall linings, and targeted malaria vector control climate variability and change and diseases.

In addition, Dr. Munga is a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) providing technical advice, monitoring and evaluation and support to technical staff including ensuring that their objectives are set, work plans developed and implemented, and their performance is regularly reviewed. In 2007, Dr. Munga worked with permission from his employer, as a Senior Guest Researcher at the Nile Basin Research Program, University of Bergen, Norway dealing with Climate Change and Human Health.

Training and Professional Qualifications
  1. Vector surveillance in the context of epidemic preparedness and response at Institute Pasteur, Dakar Senegal, October 2018, organized by World Health Organization (WHO)
  2. Science of Malaria Eradication – Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) – 2017, 
  3. Strategic Leadership Development Program – Kenya School of Government (KSG), 
  4. Leadership and Management in Global Health, University of Washington, March 2014
  5. Core Units (Leadership and Management, Supervisory Skills, Financial Management, Project and Program Management, Systems thinking, Conflict Management, Communication)
  6. Malaria Control in Humanitarian and Complex Emergencies
  7.  Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing
  8. Statistical Packages: SAS, SPSS, JMP
  9.  Proposal and Publication writing and review course
Selected Publications
  1. Agumba S, Gimnig JE, Ogonda L, Ombok M, Kosgei J, Munga S, Guyah B, Omondi S and Ochomo E 2019. Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya. Malar J. 18:243.
  2. Khagayi S, Desai M, Amek N, Were V, Onyango ED, Odero C, Otieno K, Bigogo G, Munga S, Odhiambo F, Hamel MJ, Kariuki S, Samuels AM, Slutsker L, Gimnig JE and Vounatso P 2019. Modelling the relationship between malaria prevalence as a measure of transmission and mortality across age groups. Malar J.18:247.
  3. Omore R, Khagayi S, Ogwel B, Onkoba R, Ochieng JB, Juma J, Munga S, Tabu C, Kibet S, Nuorti JP, Odhiambo F, Mwenda JM, Breiman RF, Parashar UD, Tate JE 2019. Rates of hospitalization and death for all-cause and rotavirus acute gastroenteritis before rotavirus vaccine introduction in Kenya, 2010-2013. BMC Infect Dis. 19(1):47. doi: 10.1186/s12879-018-3615-6.
  4. Abong’o B, Yu X, Donnelly M, Geier M, Gibson G, Gimnig J, ter Kuile F, Lobo NF, Ochomo E, Ombok M, Samuels A, Munga S, Torr SJ, and M. Hawkes FM. Host Decoy Trap (HDT) with cattle odour is highly effective for collection of exophagic malaria vectors Parasit Vectors. 2018 Oct 15;11(1):533. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3099.
  5. Tamari N,  Minakawa N,  Sonye GO,  Awuor B,  Kongere J,  Munga S, Larson PS. Antimalarial bednet protection of children disappears when shared by three or more people in a high transmission setting of western Kenya. Parasitology, 1-9. doi:10.1017/S003118201800149X
  6. Munga S, Kimwetich Z, Atieli F, Vulule J, Kweka EJ. Knowledge and perceptions about indoor residual spray for malaria prevention in Mumbres division, Central Province of Kenya. Tanzani J. Health Research. Volume 19, Number 4, 2017.
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Dr. Bryson Alberto Ndenga

Research Officer

Dr. Bryson A. Ndenga is a focused, goal-oriented, self-driven and hardworking scientist at KEMRI’s Center for Global Health Research in Kisumu as a Medical Entomologist. 

He diligently uses his skills as a scientist to provide practical solutions to identify, prevent and control diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors through research and capacity building.

Education

PhD, Environ. Biology/Medical Ento, Moi University, 2006

MPhil, Environ. Biology/Medical Ento, Moi University, 2001

BSc. NAT. Resource Management, Egerton University, 1995

Training and Professional Qualifications
  1. Vector surveillance in the context of epidemic preparedness and response at Institute Pasteur, Dakar Senegal, October 2018, organized by World Health Organization (WHO)
  2. Science of Malaria Eradication – Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) – 2017,
  3. Strategic Leadership Development Program – Kenya School of Government (KSG),
  4. Leadership and Management in Global Health, University of Washington, March 2014. Core Units (Leadership and Management, Supervisory Skills, Financial Management, Project and Program Management, Systems thinking, Conflict Management, Communication)
  5. Malaria Control in Humanitarian and Complex Emergencies
  6. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing
  7. Statistical Packages: SAS, SPSS, JMP
  8. Proposal and Publication writing and review course
Selected Publications
  1. Keating J, Macintyre K, Mbogo C, Githeko A, Regens JL, Swalm C, Ndenga B, Steinberg LJ, Kibe L, Githure JI, John Beier B (2003) A geographic sampling strategy for studying relationships between human activity and malaria vectors in urban Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 68(3) 357-365.
  2. Evan W, Shah SA, Mwinzi PMN, Ndenga BA, Watta CO, Karanja DMS (2003) Increased Density of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on the Surfaces of CD4+ T Cells and Monocytes of Patients with Schistosoma mansoni Infection. Infection and Immunity 71(11): 6668–6671.
  3. Ndenga B, Githeko A, Omukunda E, Munyekenye G, Atieli H, Wamai P, Mbogo C, Minakawa N, Zhou G, Yan G (2006) Population dynamics of malaria vectors in western Kenya highlands. Journal of Medical Entomolology 43(2): 200-206.
  4. Githeko, AK, Ayisi JM, Odada PK, Atieli FK, Ndenga BA, Githure JI, Yan G (2006) Topography and malaria transmission heterogeneity in western Kenya highlands: prospects for focal vector control. Malaria Journal, 5:107.
  5. Fillinger U, Ndenga B, Githeko A, Lindsay SW. (2009) Integrated malaria vector control with microbial larvicides and insecticide-treated nets in western Kenya: a controlled trial. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 87:655–665. 
  6. Ndenga BA, Simbauni JA, Mbugi JP, Githeko AK, Fillinger U (2011) Productivity of Malaria Vectors from Different Habitat Types in the Western Kenya Highlands. PLOS ONE 6:4.
  7. Ndenga BA, Simbauni JA, Mbugi JP, Githeko AK (2012) Physical, Chemical and Biological Characteristics in Habitats of High and Low Presence of Anopheline Larvae in Western Kenya Highlands. PLOS ONE 7:10.
  8. Ndenga BA, Mulaya NL, Musaki SK, Shiroko JN, Dongus S, Fillinger U (2016) Malaria vectors and their bloodmeal sources in an area of high bed net ownership in the western Kenya highlands, Malaria Journal 15:76.
Dr. Maurice Odiere

Dr. Maurice R. Odiere

Research Officer

Dr. Odiere is a Principal Research Officer at KEMRI’s Centre for Global Health Research (CGHR) and Head of the center’s Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Unit. His formal training is in Parasitology (PhD, 2010) with a background in leishmaniasis, malaria and helminth infections.

Dr. Odiere has a great interest in parasite biology & immunology, nutrition, epidemiology and control of NTDs, social science research and research ethics.

His focus for the last few years has been studies on human schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. Specifically, Dr. Odiere’s current research focuses on understanding the geographic distribution, prevalence, intensity and morbidities associated with schistosomiasis and intestinal worms and how people’s immune systems respond to these infections. He is also evaluating the Mass Drug Administration Control Strategies for Schistosomiasis and STHs, understanding persistent ‘hotspots’ for schistosomiasis, and evaluating performance of diagnostic tools with a view to developing more sensitive alternative tests to the Kato-Katz technique.

His research team has been involved in the development of a Multiplex Bead Assay (MBA) that provides a robust approach to the simultaneous analysis of antibody responses to multiple antigens using a single blood sample. In the public health context, this assay platform has the potential to generate an epidemiologic snapshot of community exposures to infections of interest. The team has also conducted studies on identification of strategies for strengthening Primary Health Care System in the control NTDs, and qualitative studies towards understanding of the socio-economic and cultural dynamics of schistosomiasis transmission.

Dr. Odiere is a Principal Research Officer at KEMRI’s Centre for Global Health Research (CGHR) and Head of the center’s Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Unit. His formal training is in Parasitology (PhD, 2010) with a background in leishmaniasis, malaria and helminth infections.

Dr. Odiere has a great interest in parasite biology & immunology, nutrition, epidemiology and control of NTDs, social science research and research ethics.

His focus for the last few years has been studies on human schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. Specifically, Dr. Odiere’s current research focuses on understanding the geographic distribution, prevalence, intensity and morbidities associated with schistosomiasis and intestinal worms and how people’s immune systems respond to these infections. He is also evaluating the Mass Drug Administration Control Strategies for Schistosomiasis and STHs, understanding persistent ‘hotspots’ for schistosomiasis, and evaluating performance of diagnostic tools with a view to developing more sensitive alternative tests to the Kato-Katz technique.

His research team has been involved in the development of a Multiplex Bead Assay (MBA) that provides a robust approach to the simultaneous analysis of antibody responses to multiple antigens using a single blood sample. In the public health context, this assay platform has the potential to generate an epidemiologic snapshot of community exposures to infections of interest. The team has also conducted studies on identification of strategies for strengthening Primary Health Care System in the control NTDs, and qualitative studies towards understanding of the socio-economic and cultural dynamics of schistosomiasis transmission.

Publications

  1. Won K.Y., Kanyi H.M., Mwende F.M., Wiegand R.E., Goodhew, E.B., Priest J.W., Lee Y, Njenga S.M., Secor W.E., Lammie P.J. Odiere M.R. 2017. Multiplex Serologic Assessment of Schistosomiasis in Western Kenya: Antibody Responses in Preschool Aged Children as a Measure of Reduced Transmission. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 96(6), 1460-1467.
  1. Kepha S., Mwandawiro C.S., Anderson R.M., Pullan R.L., Nuwaha F., Cano J., Njenga S.M., Odiere M.R., Allen E., Brooker S.J., Nikolay B. 2017. Impact of single annual treatment and four-monthly treatment for hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, and factors associated with residual infection among Kenyan school children. Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 6(1):30.
  2. Scobie H.M., Patel M., Martin D., Mkocha H., Njenga S.M., Odiere M.R., Pelletreau S., Priest J.W., Thompson R., Won K.Y., Lammie P.J. 2017. Tetanus Immunity Gaps in Children 5-14 Years and Men ≥ 15 Years of Age Revealed by Integrated Disease Serosurveillance in Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 96(2):415-420.
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Dr. Pauline N. Mwinzi

Research Officer

Dr. Mwinzi is currently a Chief Research Officer in CGHR at the NTD Research Unit. She served previously as the PI for the KEMRI-CDC Cooperative Agreement one and a half years.

Dr. Mwinzi’s specialization is in Parasitology and Immunology. She obtained her PhD in 2005 from the Universiteit Utrecht (UU) in the Netherlands. Her current research interests are in understanding immune mechanisms related to development of resistance to schistosome infections, as well as in operational research for the control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). She serves as a reviewer in the Scientific and Ethics Review Unit (SERU) at KEMRI and uses her experience in bioethics to train research teams in the ethical conduct of biomedical research.

Dr. Mwinzi is currently a Principal Investigator for the following four studies:

  1. An NIH RO1 funded study on The Role of 1gE in human schistosomiasis (RO1) (STC-Biologics)
  2. A Merck KGa funded study on Effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among 1-5 year old children in western Kenya
  3. An EFINTD funded study on Control of Schistosomiasis in an Urban setting in western Kenya: Closing the gap through targeting street children (EFINTD.org)
  4. A B&MGF funded study (through UGA SCORE) on Comparison of school and community-based mass drug administration delivery strategies for control of Schistosoma mansoni infections in western Kenya in areas with >25% prevalence (SCORE SM2) (uga.edu/score)

She is also a co-investigator in several other studies. Dr. Mwinzi is part of the team that founded the Annual KEMRI NTD Conference, which is now in its 11th year. She is the immediate past Chair of the KEMRI Annual Scientific Health Conference (KASH) and Chair of the Management Board of the ARNTD (www.arntd.org). In addition, Dr. Mwinzi, jointly with her colleagues, also established the “American Society for Tropical Medicine & Hygiene (ASTMH) in Kenya” convened alongside KASH. Her other achievements include the high number of published papers and papers presented in local conferences as senior author.

Dr. Mwinzi has authored over 60 publications in peer review journals, provided technical support to the WHO/AFRO NTD programme and Mapping Project for Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted helminths (STHs) and supported WHO NTD control activities in the African Region from time to time.

At the international level she serves on the Scientific Advisory Committees for Deworm 3, and the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI). Her contribution in academia includes teaching Bioethics at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology (JOOUST) and Immunology of Parasitic Infections at the University of Maseno. 

Selected Publications
  1. Ho J, Odhiambo G, Meng’anyi LW, Musuva RM, Mule JM, Alaly ZS, Odiere MR, Mwinzi PN, Ganley-Leal L. Evaluation of medicine retail outlets for sale of typhoid fever vaccine among adults in two urban and rural settings in western Kenya: a proof-of-concept study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16(1):527.
  2. Odhiambo GO, Musuva RM, Odiere MR, Mwinzi PN. Experiences and perspectives of community health workers from implementing treatment for schistosomiasis using the community directed intervention strategy in an informal settlement in Kisumu City, western Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:986. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3662-0.
  3. Ezeamama AE, He CL, Shen Y, Yin XP, Binder SC, Campbell CH Jr, Rathbun S, Whalen CC, N’Goran EK, Utzinger J, Olsen A, Magnussen P, Kinung’hi S, Fenwick A, Phillips A, Ferro J, Karanja DM, Mwinzi PN, Montgomery S, Secor WE, Hamidou A, Garba A, King CH, Colley DG. Gaining and sustaining schistosomiasis control: study protocol and baseline data prior to different treatment strategies in five African countries. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:229. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1575-2.
  4. Onkanga IO, Mwinzi PN, Muchiri G, Andiego K, Omedo M, Karanja DM, Wiegand RE, Secor WE, Montgomery SP. Impact of two rounds of praziquantel mass drug administration on Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence and intensity: a comparison between community wide treatment and school based treatment in western Kenya. Int J Parasitol. 2016;46(7):439-45. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2016.01.006.
  5. Ng’etich AI, Rawago FO, Jura WG, Mwinzi PN, Won KY, Odiere MR. A cross-sectional study on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Mbita district, western Kenya using different copromicroscopic techniques. Parasite Vectors. 2016;9:87. doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1368-x.
  6. Mwinzi PN, Muchiri G, Wiegand RE, Omedo M, Abudho B, Karanja DM, Montgomery SP, Secor WE. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children’s Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93(6):1311-7. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0467.
  7. Kepha S, Nuwaha F, Nikolay B, Gichuki P, Mwandawiro CS, Mwinzi PN, Odiere MR, Edwards T, Allen E, Brooker SJ. Effect of Repeated Anthelminthic Treatment on Malaria in School Children in Kenya: A Randomized, Open-Label, Equivalence Trial. J Infect Dis. 2016;213(2):266-75. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv382.
  8. Lai YS, Biedermann P, Ekpo UF, Garba A, Mathieu E, Midzi N, Mwinzi P, N’Goran EK, Raso G, Assaré RK, Sacko M, Schur N, Talla I, Tchuenté LA, Touré S, Winkler MS, Utzinger J, Vounatsou P. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and treatment needs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and geostatistical analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(8):927-40. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00066-3. Erratum in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(7):761.
  9. Corstjens PL, Nyakundi RK, de Dood CJ, Kariuki TM, Ochola EA, Karanja DM, Mwinzi PN, van Dam GJ. Improved sensitivity of the urine CAA lateral-flow assay for diagnosing active Schistosoma infections by using larger sample volumes. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:241. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0857-7.
Profile pic_EO

Prof Eleanor Ochodo-Opondo

Research Scientist

Prof Eleanor Ochodo-Opondo is an Assistant Principal Research Scientist at KEMRI and Associate Professor Extraordinary of Clinical Epidemiology at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. She leads the evidence synthesis and knowledge translation research group at the Centre for Global Health Research (CGHR) at KEMRI. Her research revolves around evidence-based health care and diagnostic test evaluation. She is an academic editor with the Cochrane collaboration (infectious diseases group) and is on the editorial boards of journals, PLOS One, PLOS Global Health and Frontiers in Epidemiology (Clinical Epidemiology section).

She has served as a methodologist/ systematic reviewer to the World Health Organization (WHO) informing guidance on Covid-19 and diagnostic testing for TB and HIV. She was awarded the prestigious 2019 UK MRC/DFID African Research Leader award and 2020 UK NIHR developmental award to advance the science of evidence synthesis and research translation in Kenya in collaboration with Stellenbosch University, South Africa, and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. She has also been a lead investigator for research funded by the Wellcome Trust, WHO and Stellenbosch University. She has previously been recognized as a promising young researcher by the National Research Foundation of South Africa and by the African Academy of Sciences.

Academic and Professional Profile

MBChB, MSc, PhD

She received her MBChB degree from University of Nairobi, a Postgraduate Certificate in Infectious Diseases from Edinburgh University in the UK, an MSc in International Health from Free University of Amsterdam and a PhD in Clinical Epidemiology from University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Selected Publications
  1.  Ochodo EA, Guleid F, Deeks JJ, Mallett S. Point-of-care tests detecting HIV nucleic acids for diagnosis of HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection in infants and children aged 18 months or less. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Aug 12;8(8):CD013207. (View Publication).pub2. PMID: 34383961; PMCID: PMC8406580.
  2. Spies R, Potter M, Hollamby R, van der Walt S, Hohlfeld A, Ochodo E, van Zyl-Smit RN. Sputum colour as a marker for bacteria in acute exacerbations of COPD: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev. 2021 Jul 27;10(1):211.(View Publication). PMID: 34315541; PMCID: PMC8317370.
  3. Zifodya JS, Kreniske JS, Schiller I, Kohli M, Dendukuri N, Schumacher SG, Ochodo EA, Haraka F, Zwerling AA, Pai M, Steingart KR, Horne DJ. Xpert Ultra versus Xpert MTB/RIF for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Feb 22;2:CD009593. (View Publication). PMID: 33616229.
  4. Stegeman I, Ochodo EA, Guleid F, Holtman GA, Yang B, Davenport C, Deeks JJ, Dinnes J, Dittrich S, Emperador D, Hooft L, Spijker R, Takwoingi Y, Van den Bruel A, Wang J, Langendam M, Verbakel JY, Leeflang MM; Cochrane COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Accuracy Group. Routine laboratory testing to determine if a patient has COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Nov 19;11(11):CD013787 (view publication) PMID: 33211319; PMCID: PMC8078159.
  5. Telford LH, Abdullahi LH, Ochodo EA, Zuhlke LJ, Engel ME. Standard echocardiography versus handheld echocardiography for the detection of subclinical rheumatic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. BMJ Open. 2020 Oct 29;10(10):e038449. (View Publication). PMID: 33122317; PMCID: PMC7597508.
  6. Ochodo EA, Kalema N, Schumacher S, Steingart K, Young T, Mallett S, Deeks J,Cobelens F, Bossuyt PM, Nicol MP, Cattamanchi A. Variation in the observed effect of Xpert MTB/RIF testing for tuberculosis on mortality: A systematic review and analysis of trial design considerations. Wellcome Open Res. 2020 Aug 17;4:173. (View Publication)

Boaz Ouma Oyaro

Research Scientist, Laboratory Supervisor HIVR

Mr. Boaz is a  self-motivated and hardworking Laboratory Scientist with experience in Quality Assurance Program, (External quality assurance, internal quality assurance and internal Quality improvement) Viral genotyping and HIV Sequencing, DNA PCR, HIV and HCV Viral load analysis, CD4 analysis, Biochemical analysis, Hematological analysis, Enzyme immunoassays, Incidence assays, Sexually Transmitted infection. Currently he is a Laboratory Supervisor for the clinical research laboratory for KEMRI-CGHR HIV-Research laboratory.

Mr. Boaz has proven leadership skills, including managing and motivating other staff to achieve organization objectives. He has been working with KEMRI-CGHR HIV-R Laboratory from 2003 to date in different capacities As scientist, his main goal is to conduct research on Viruses and currently is working with HIV-R division to achieve this. He is running three protocols sponsored through WHO on Evaluation of Invitro Diagnostics

Academic and Professional Profile
  • Master of Science-Bacteriology and Virology-(Ongoing)
  • Bachelor of Science in Zoology
  • Higher Diploma Medical Laboratory Science,
  • Diploma Medical Laboratory Science
Selected Publications
  1. Co-author: Population-Based Biochemistry, Immunologic and Hematological Reference Values for Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural population in Western Kenya(PLos One)
  2. Co-author: Performance of six commercial enzyme immunoassays and two alternative HIV-testing algorithms for the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in Kisumu, Western Kenya. (Journal of Virological Methods
  3. Co-author: Nevirapine-Associated Hepatotoxicity and Rash among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women In Kenya(JIAPAC)
  4. Co-author: Rash, hepatotoxicity and hyperbilirubinemia among Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women receiving triple-antiretrovirals as prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission.(PIDJ)
Dr Prisca Oria

Dr Prisca Oria

Senior Research Officer

Prisca holds Bachelor of Arts (Anthropology) and Master of Arts (Communication Studies) degrees from the University of Nairobi, and a PhD (Sociology) from Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

Since 2007, she has provided social science technical expertise to public health research projects including diarrhoeal disease management in children, seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination among the general population and health care workers, and lately, malaria vector control.

Current Position: Social Scientist on the study “Understanding behavioural, market and practical factors affecting potential of household spatial repellents use for malaria control in western Kenya

Selected Publications
  1. Options for sustaining solar-powered mosquito trapping systems on Rusinga Island, western Kenya: a social dilemma analysis. Prisca A Oria, Michiel Wijnands, Jane Alaii, and Cees Leeuwis. BMC Public Health. 2018.
  2. Stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial of the impact of mass mosquito trapping on malaria (SolarMal). Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Daniel Masiga, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca A Oria, Nicolas Maire, Aurelio Di Pasquale, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Thomas A Smith, and Willem Takken. The Lancet. 2016.
  3. Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya: study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial. Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Collins K Mweresa, Nicolas Maire, Aurelio Di Pasquale, Daniel Masiga, Prisca A Oria, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Willem Takken, Thomas A Smith. Trials. 2016.
  4. Combining malaria control with house electrification: adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems, Rusinga Island, western Kenya. Prisca A Oria, Jane Alaii, Margaret Ayugi, Willem Takken, and Cees Leeuwis. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2015.
  5. Tracking the mutual shaping of the technical and social dimensions of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya. Prisca A Oria, Jane Alaii, Margaret Ayugi, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Willem Takken, Cees Leeuwis. Parasites and Vectors. 2014.
  6. Assessing Parents’ Knowledge and Attitudes towards Seasonal Influenza Vaccination of Children Prior to and following a Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Effectiveness Study in Urban and Rural Kenya, 2010-2011. Prisca A Oria, Geoffrey Arunga, Emmaculate Lebo, Joshua W Wong, Gideon Emukule, Nancy Otieno, Philip Muthoka, David Mutonga, Robert F Breiman, Mark A Katz. BMC Public Health. 2013.
  7. Examining the Use of Oral Rehydration Salts and Other Oral Rehydration Therapy for Childhood Diarrhea in Kenya. Lauren S Blum, Prisca A Oria, Christine K Olson, Robert F Breiman, and Pavani K Ram. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 2011.
  8. Community Case Management of Childhood Diarrhea in a Setting with declining use of Oral Rehydration Therapy: Findings from Cross-sectional Studies among Primary Household Caregivers, Kenya, 2007. Christine K Olson, Lauren S Blum, Kinnery N Patel, Prisca A Oria, Daniel R Feikin, Kayla F Laserson, Annah W Wamae, Alfred V Bartlett, Robert F Breiman, and Pavani K Ram. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 2011.
  9.  Are Kenyan Healthcare Workers Willing to Receive the Pandemic Influenza Vaccine? Results from a Cross-sectional Survey of Healthcare Workers in Kenya about Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about Infection with and Vaccination against 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1), 2010. Prisca A Oria, Wycliffe Matini, et al. Vaccine. 2011.
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Rosemary M. Musuva

Research Officer

Rosemary Musuva is a Research Officer in CGHR. She has a formal training in Public Health and social science research.

Ms. Musuva is currently a Principal Investigator for a B&MGF funded study (through UGA SCORE) on the Impact of Mass Drug Administration for Control of Schistosoma mansoni infections in Kisumu, Siaya and Homa Bay Counties. Understanding factors associated with sustained high prevalence in some areas despite repeated high treatment coverage.

Publications
  1. Musuva RM, Matey E, Masaku JM, Odhiambo GO, Mwende F, Thuita I, Kihara J, Njomo DW. Lessons from implementing mass drug administration for soil transmitted helminths among pre-school aged children during school-based deworming program at the Kenyan coast. BMC Public Health (In Press)
  2. Masaku J, Mwende F, Odhiambo G, Musuva R, Matey E, Kihara JH, Thuita IG, Njomo DW. Knowledge, practices and perceptions of geo-helminthes infection among parents of pre-school age children of coastal region, Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(3):e0005514. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005514.
  3. Ho J, Odhiambo G, Meng’anyi LW, Musuva RM, Mule JM, Alaly ZS, Odiere MR, Mwinzi PN, Ganley-Leal L. Evaluation of medicine retail outlets for sale of typhoid fever vaccine among adults in two urban and rural settings in western Kenya: a proof-of-concept study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16(1):527.
  4. Odhiambo GO, Musuva RM, Odiere MR, Mwinzi PN. Experiences and perspectives of community health workers from implementing treatment for schistosomiasis using the community directed intervention strategy in an informal settlement in Kisumu City, western Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:986. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3662-0.
  5. Omedo M, Ogutu M, Awiti A, Musuva R, Muchiri G, Montgomery SP, Secor WE, Mwinzi P. The effect of a health communication campaign on compliance with mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control in western Kenya–the SCORE project. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91(5):982-8. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0136.
  6. Odhiambo GO, Musuva RM, Atuncha VO, Mutete ET, Odiere MR, Onyango RO, Alaii JA, Mwinzi PN. Low levels of awareness despite high prevalence of schistosomiasis among communities in Nyalenda informal settlement, Kisumu city, western Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(4):e2784. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002784.
  7. Musuva RM, Awiti A, Omedo M, Ogutu M, Secor WE, Montgomery SP, Alaii J, Mwinzi PN. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices on schistosomiasis in western Kenya–the SCORE Project. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90(4):646-52. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0488.
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Jackline Jeruto Kosgei

Senior Research Officer

Jackline holds is a PhD candidate of Maseno University, holds a Master of Science in Medical Entomology and vector science major and a BSc in Biomedical Science and Technology from Maseno University.

Jackline is a distinguished scholar with experience in malaria vector research and possess expert skills in field collection and laboratory analysis of mosquitoes. Since 2012, She has successfully supervised the development of policies and overseen the establishment, design, and delivery of project initiatives. She represents KEMRI CGHR at the National Malaria control Program (NMCP) and a member of the vector control steering committee.

Current Position: Research Officer in charge of coordination of the Attractive Sugar Bait Study and the lead person of other entomology studies within KEMRI CGHR

Selected Publications
  1. Agumba S, Gimnig JE, Ogonda L, Ombok M, Kosgei J, Munga S, Guyah B, Omondi S, Ochomo E. Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya. Malar J. 2019 Jul 17;18(1):243. doi: 10.1186/s12936-019-2858-z. PMID: 31315614; PMCID: PMC6637467.
  2. Maxwell G. Machani, Eric Ochomo, Jackline Kosgei, Fred Amimo, Stephen Munga, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan, and Yaw A. Afrane; Resting behaviour of malaria vectors in a highland and lowland area of western Kenya: Implication on malaria vector control measures (In press)
  3. Bayoh, Nabie, Kosgei Jackline, Walker, Edward, Ombok, Maurice, Olang, George, Githeko, Andrew, Killeen, Gerry, Otieno, Peter, Kariuki, Simon, Desai, Meghna, Lobo, Neil, Vulule, John, Hamel Mary and Gimnig, John: Persistently high estimates of late night, indoor exposure to malaria vectors despite high coverage of insecticide treated nets. Parasites & Vectors, 2014; 7:380.
  4. John E. Gimnig, Edward D. Walker, Peter Otieno, Jackline Kosgei, George Olang, Maurice Ombok, John Williamson, Doris Marwanga, Daisy Abong’o, Meghna Desai, Simon Kariuki, Mary J. Hamel,Neil F. Lobo, John Vulule, and M. Nabie Bayoh, 2013; Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2013; 88(2): 301-8
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Bernard Onyango Abong’o

Research Scientist
Education

BSc and MSc Biomedical Science and Technology, Medical Entomology and Vector Science major from Maseno University, Kenya.
PhD in Vector Biology from Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), Liverpool, UK

Achievements
  1. Development and implementation of low-cost community-based entomology surveillance for longitudinal monitoring of mosquito populations
  2. Evaluation of a novel outdoor mosquito trapping technique
  3. Evaluation of entomological impact of IRS with Actellic 300CS for malaria transmission reduction
Selected Publications
  1. Odero NA, Samuels AM, Odongo W, Abong’o B, Gimnig J, Otieno K, et al. Community-based intermittent mass testing and treatment for malaria in an area of high transmission intensity, western Kenya: development of study site infrastructure and lessons learned. Malaria journal. 2019;18(1) 
  2. Smit MR, Ochomo EO, Aljayyoussi G, Kwambai TK, Abong’o BO, Bousema T, Waterhouse D, Bayoh NM, Gimnig JE, Samuels AM, Desai MR, Phillips-Howard PA, Kariuki SK, Wang D, Ward SA, Ter Kuile FO. Human Direct Skin Feeding Versus Membrane Feeding to Assess the Mosquitocidal Efficacy of High-Dose Ivermectin (IVERMAL Trial). Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 13;69(7):1112-1119. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy1063. PubMed PMID: 30590537; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6743833.
  3. Abong’o B, Yu X, Donnelly MJ, Geier M, Gibson G, Gimnig J, et al. Host Decoy Trap (HDT) with cattle odour is highly effective for collection of exophagic malaria vectors. Parasites & vectors. 2018;11(1).
  4. Smit MR, Ochomo EO, Aljayyoussi G, Kwambai TK, Abong’o BO, Chen T, et al. Safety and mosquitocidal efficacy of high-dose ivermectin when co-administered with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Kenyan adults with uncomplicated malaria (IVERMAL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2018.
  5. Ochomo EO, Bayoh NM, Walker ED, Abongo BO, Ombok MO, Ouma C, et al. The efficacy of long-lasting nets with declining physical integrity may be compromised in areas with high levels of pyrethroid resistance. Malaria journal. 2013;12:368.
  6. Samuels AM, Awino N, Odongo W, Abong’o B, Gimnig J, Otieno K, et al. Community-based intermittent mass testing and treatment for malaria in an area of high transmission intensity, western Kenya: study design and methodology for a cluster randomized controlled trial. Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):240.
  7. Smit MR, Ochomo EO, Aljayyoussi G, Kwambai TK, Abong’o BO, Bousema T, et al. Human Direct Skin Feeding versus Membrane Feeding to Assess the Mosquitocidal Efficacy of High-Dose Ivermectin (IVERMAL Trial). Clin Infect Dis. 2018.
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Elizabeth A.Ochola

Lab. Technologist

Elizabeth A. Ochola is a Laboratory Technologist. She is currently pursuing PhD studies in Health Geography at the University of Waterloo, Canada. Ms. Ochola has a Master of Science degree in Medical Parasitology from Maseno University and a BSc. in Biology (Biomedical Sciences) from the University of Eastern Africa- Baraton. Ms. Ochola’s PhD research is on the impact of structural inequalities on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), and how this affects health and well-being in sub-Saharan Africa. This research is part of an extensive study named the Global Index of Well-being (GLOWING), which aims to develop indicators that measure well-being in low to middle-income countries (LMICs) to enable policy makers  make evidence-based decisions that improve the wellbeing of a country’s citizens.

Publications
  1. Meurs L, Brienen E, Mbow M, Ochola EA, Mboup S, Karanja DM, Secor WE, Polman K, van Lieshout L. Is PCR the Next Reference Standard for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma in Stool? A Comparison with Microscopy in Senegal and Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(7):e0003959. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003959.
  2. Corstjens PL, Nyakundi RK, de Dood CJ, Kariuki TM, Ochola EA, Karanja DM, Mwinzi PN, van Dam GJ. Improved sensitivity of the urine CAA lateral-flow assay for diagnosing active Schistosoma infections by using larger sample volumes. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:241. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0857-7.
  3. Worrell CM, Bartoces M, Karanja DM, Ochola EA, Matete DO, Mwinzi PN, Montgomery SP, Secor WE. Cost analysis of tests for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;92(6):1233-9. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0644.
  4. Foo KT, Blackstock AJ, Ochola EA, Matete DO, Mwinzi PN, Montgomery SP, Karanja DM, Secor WE. Evaluation of point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assays for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in low-, moderate-, and high-prevalence schools in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;92(6):1227-32. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0643.
  5. Mwinzi PN, Kittur N, Ochola E, Cooper PJ, Campbell CH Jr, King CH, Colley DG. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection. Front Public Health. 2015;3:48. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2015.00048.
  6. Davis SM, Wiegand RE, Mulama F, Kareko EI, Harris R, Ochola E, Samuels AM, Rawago F, Mwinzi PM, Fox LM, Odiere MR, Won KY. Morbidity associated with schistosomiasis before and after treatment in young children in Rusinga Island, western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;92(5):952-8. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0346.
  7. Won KY, Abudho B, Blackstock AJ, Montgomery SP, Kennedy ED, Person B, Mwinzi PN, Ochola EA, Foo KT, Hightower AW, Karanja DM, Secor WE. Assessment of quality of life as a tool for measuring morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni infection and the impact of treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90(2):322-8. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0361.
  8. Muok EM, Simiyu EW, Ochola EA, Ng’ang’a ZW, Secor WE, Karanja DM, Mwinzi PN. Association between CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and fecal excretion of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in patients coinfected with S. mansoni and human immunodeficiency virus before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89(1):42-5. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0045.

Evans Odipo Odhiambo

Research Scientist, Regulatory Officer HIVR

Evans is a competent clinician with a wide range of experience in practicing clinical medicine and surgery, delivering training, and generating reports. His work experience has mainly revolved around HIV treatment and prevention predominantly program work and research.

He previously worked at the Jaramogi Odinga Oginga Teaching and Referral hospital as a clinical officer whereby he was instrumental in setting up the first ever-Comprehensive Care Clinic for PLWHA. He joined KEMRI Center for Global Health Research under the HIV Research Division where I have worked as a clinical officer, a quality assurance officer and currently the Regulatory officer. He has participated in different Clinical trials especially under the HIV prevention Trials Network, which include HPTN 052, HPTN 081 and HPTN 084. He is currently the Regulatory Officer for COVID-19 vaccine trials at HIV research division.

Fit for his role, he is enthusiastic and energetic, stimulated by challenge, a strategic thinker, possessing excellent communication & professional skills. He has strong analytical and problem solving skills, with a keen attention to detail

Academic and Professional Profile
  • Diploma in Clinical medicine and Surgery, Kenya Medical Training College.
  • Bachelor of Science degree in Community Health and Development, Great Lakes University of Kisumu.
Other trainings:
  • Certificate in Quality Management systems from the Kenya Bureau of Standards
  • Certificate in Behavioural Change and communication from African Medical Research Foundation
  • Certificate European Paediatric Life Support(EPLS) from Resuscitation Council of Kenya
  • Effective Scientific Communication and Publishing Certificate from the University of Nairobi
  • Certificate in Counseling from the Kenya Association of Professional Counsellors
Academic and Professional Profile
  1. Emerging trends in contraceptive use, transitions and preferences among female sex workers screened for an HIV prevention clinical trial in Kisumu, Kenya: a cross-sectional study- July 2019 Gates Open Research 3:1505 DOI: 10.12688/gatesopenres.13000.1 License CC BY 4.0
  2. Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy for the HPTN 052 Study Team* -August 2011 New England Journal of Medicine 365(6):493-505

Dr. Grace Mboya

Clinical Research Scientist

Dr. Mboya is an experienced Clinical Research Scientist with background expertise in complex clinical trial activities and demonstrated history of working in a high volume hospital setup. She has  been a Medical officer in various multicenter clinical trials including the AMP Study where she served as the Investigator of Record to evaluate the safety and efficacy of VRC01, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody in reducing acquisition of HIV-1 infection in women in Sub-Saharan Africa, a Medical Officer on the HPTN 084 study evaluating the efficacy of the long-acting injectable integrase inhibitor, cabotegravir (CAB LA), for HIV prevention when compared to oral tenofovir dispoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) among others.

She is currently serving as the Investigator of Record on the CoVPN 3008 clinical trial, a Multi-Center, Randomized, Efficacy Study of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine in Regions with SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern.

She has vast understanding on the intricacies of research work, having learned the importance of planning, organization, leadership and coordination in the efficient conduct of a project.

Academic and Professional Profile
Education/ Training
  • University of Nairobi- MBChB Medicine & Surgery 2012
  • University of Suffolk- MPH Masters in Public health Ongoing
  • University of Washington- Certificate Annual Principles of STI/HIV Research and Public Health Practice Course 2020
Other Experience and Professional Memberships

20 November 2020 – WHO Expert Consultation: Preferred Product Characteristics for HIV monoclonal antibodies

Selected Publications
  1. Dismas Oketch, Eunice C. Kaguiri, Joseph O. Orinda, Grace Mboya, et al. (2019) Emerging trends in contraceptive use, transitions and preferences among female sex workers screened for an HIV prevention clinical trial in Kisumu, Kenya: a cross-sectional study. Gates Open Research Journal
  2. Corey, L., Gilbert, P.B., Juraska, M., et al. (2021) “Two Randomized Trials of Neutralizing Antibodies to Prevent HIV-1 Acquisition” N Engl J Med. 2021;384:1003-14

Ken Ondeng’e

Research Scientist

Ken currently serves as the social & behavioral science lead at the HIV Research Division of the Kenyan Medical Research Institute, Center for Global Health Research (CGHR) in Kisumu, Kenya. He has extensive expertise in qualitative and mixed methods research with close to 10 years’ experience working with communities in Western Kenya. Ken has published in the areas of HIV & STIs, stigma, mental health, maternal health, adolescent health research including games for health. Ken is an implementation science & SRH enthusiast.

Since 2017, Ken has been the lead social scientist with the DREAMS Impact Evaluation Team in Western Kenya, a research consortium led by LSHTM. He also oversees a research project aimed at understanding the experiences and challenges faced by adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV Infection in Western Kenya.

Currently, Ken is a co-investigator and project manager for an efficacy trial for a theory-based, empirically grounded smartphone game to prevent HIV among young Africans in Western Kenya

Academic and Professional Qualifications
  • BA
  • MA (c)
  • MPH (Health Systems & Disease Control)
Selected Publications
  1. Ondenge K, Gvetadze R, Otieno G, Gust DA, McLellan-Lemal E. Factors associated with age of first sex among women screened for an observational contraceptive vaginal ring study in Kisumu, Kenya, 2014. Afr J Reprod Health. 2021 Feb; 25(1):101-113. doi: 10.29063/ajrh2021/v25i1.12. PMID: 34077116; PMCID: PMC8186808.
  2. Ondenge K, Khalil G, Odero I, Ford DC, Thompson WW, Awuonda E, Omoro T, Gust DA. Factors associated with
    psychological distress among members of HIV discordant couples in western Kenya: the role of adverse childhood experiences. J Glob Health Rep 2018; 2: e2018018.
  3. Winskell K, Sabben G, Akelo V, Ondeng’e K, Obong’o C, Stephenson R, Warhol D, Mudhune V. A Smartphone Game-Based Intervention (Tumaini) to Prevent HIV among Young Africans: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 2018 Aug 1;6(8):e10482. PMCID: PMC6094086
  4. McLellan-Lemal, E., K. Ondeng’e, D. A. Gust, M. Desai, F. O. Otieno, P. A. Madiega, B. Nyagol, and E. M. Makanga. “Contraceptive vaginal ring experiences among women and men in Kisumu, Kenya: a qualitative study.” Frontiers in women’s health 2, no. 1 (2017).
  5.  Ondenge K, Renju J, Bonnington O, Moshabela M, Wamoyi J, Nyamukapa C, Seeley J, Wringe A, Skovdal M, ‘I am treated well if I adhere to my HIV medication’: putting patient-provider interactions in context through insights from qualitative research in five sub-Saharan African countries. Sex Transm Infect. 2017 Jul;93(Suppl 3). pii: e052973. PMCID: PMC5739840
  6. Kohler PK, Ondenge K, Mills LA, Okanda J, Kinuthia J, Olilo G, Odhiambo F, Laserson KF, Zierler B, Voss J, John-Stewart G. Shame, Guilt, and Stress: Community Perceptions of Barriers to Engaging in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programs in Western Kenya. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2014 Dec; 28(12):643-51. PMCID: PMC4250952

Philister Adhiambo Madiega

Research Scientist, Community Liaison Lead HIVR

Madiega is a community engagement lead liaison at the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centre for Global Research(KEMRI/CGHR) based in Kisumu. She leads and coordinates the implementation of community engagement, involvement and entry process within the HIV research division on a number of NIH sponsored HIV studies, pediatric and COVID-19 protocols. She also provides insight on ethical community engagement to increase community support of research trials, plans and oversees mobilization, outreach, recruitment, retention and dissemination of research findings to stakeholders.

She has a wealth of experience on public health research in the areas of HIV prevention, treatment and cure strategies, pediatric and COVID-19 translation of research knowledge, dissemination of information, stakeholder engagement and management of mutual sustainable relationships. She maintains a well-coordinated, mutual relationship between stakeholders and the research organization, engaged in review of study advertisement materials and provide feedback.

Her research interest is on HIV interventions and how broadly neutralizing antibodies can shape the landscape of HIV prevention, cure and development of COVID-19 interventions in a changing world with numerous challenges in prevention, treatment and cure.

Her passion is to strengthen community mobilization, recruitment, retention and dissemination of information to communities to enhance acceptability, demand and consumption of biologics as interventions and demystify misinformation to build strong communal trust of innovative biologics, technologies and devices to end disease burden.

Academic and Professional Profile

Master’s in Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London

Post-Graduate Diploma in Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine(LSHTM)

Project Management in Global Health, University of Washington

Education, Meru Teacher’s College, Kenya

Selected Publications
  1. Oketch D, Kaguiri EC, Orinda JO, Mboya G, Ogutu P, Lando R, Juma C, Ndivo R, Ontieri DO, Madiega PA, Oloo F, Oruko J, Akello R, Wandera K, Odipo E, Greene E, Andrew P, Mudhune V, Akelo V. Emerging trends in contraceptive use, transitions and preferences among female sex workers screened for an HIV prevention clinical trial in Kisumu, Kenya: a cross-sectional study Gates Open Research 2019, 3:1505
  2. Contraceptive vaginal ring experiences among women and men in Kisumu, Kenya: A qualitative study McLellan-Lemal E Ondeng’e K Gust DA, Desai M, Otieno FO , Madiega PA , Nyagol B, and Makanga EM. Frontiers in Women’s Health
  3. Molyneux, S., Kamuya, D., Madiega, P. A., Chantler, T., Angwenyi, V., & Geissler, P. W. (2013). Field workers at the interface. Developing world bioethics, 13(1), ii–iv.(View Publication)
  4. Molyneux, S., Kamuya, D., Madiega, P.A., Chantler, T., Angwenyi, V. and Geissler, P.W., 2013. Field workers at the interface. Developing world bioethics, 13(1), p.ii.
  5. Madiega, P.A., Chantler, T., Jones, G. and Prince, R., 2008. ‘Our son Obama’: the US presidential election in Western Kenya. Anthropology today, 24(6), pp.4-7.
  6. Geissler, P.W., Harris, S.A., Prince, R.J., Olsen, A., Achieng’Odhiambo, R., Oketch-Rabah, H., Madiega, P.A., Andersen, A. and Mølgaard, P., 2002. Medicinal plants used by Luo mothers and children in Bondo district, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 83(1-2), pp.39-54.

Richard Ndivo

Research Scientist, Senior Data Analyst HIVR

Mr. Richard has worked with KEMRI since 1999 as a Junior Data Manager attached to the Bednet Study where he worked till the completion of the study. He then joined the Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) during its inception after the Bednet Study ended and worked till 2003 before joining the HIV-Research division as a Data Manager.

In HIV-Research, he has been involved in the Kisumu Breast-feeding Study, Baseline Cross-section Survey (both Asembo and Gem), Kisumu Cohort Studies (general population, adolescent and high risk), network studies, namely ACTG studies and HPTN studies, Kisumu Combination Ring Study, SHAN6 study GAME study and currently CoVPN studies and KAT study as a Senior Data Analyst.

His role includes data management, data analysis, designing surveys in Open Data Kit (ODK), Redcap and Questionnaire Design Studio (QDS), supervision of data staff and training of study stuff in data management systems. He is proficient in Stata, SAS and R softwares

Academic and Professional Profile
  • BSc Statistics
  • MSc (ongoing)
Selected Publications
  1. Efficacy Trial for a Smartphone Game to Prevent HIV among Young Africans: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Context of COVID-19 (JMIR Research Protocols, November 2021)
  2. Emerging trends in contraceptive use, transitions and preferences among female sex works screened for an HIV prevention clinical trial in Kisumu, Kenya: a cross-sectional study (Gates Open Research, July 2019)
  3. A Smartphone Game to Prevent HIV Among Young Africans (Tumaini): Assessing Intervention and Study Acceptability Among Adolescents and Their Parents in a Randomised Controlled Trial (JMIR mhealth and uhealth, May 2019)
  4. A Smartphone Game to Prevent HIV Among Young Africans: Protocol for a Randomized Pilot Study of a Mobile Intervention (JMIR Research Protocols, March 2019)
  5. Adverse fetal and infant outcomes among HIV-infected women who received either NNRTI- or PI-based ART for PMTCT (AIDS, April 2018)
  6. Correlation of Adherence by Pill Count, Self-report, MEMS and Plasma Drug Levels to Treatment Response Among Women Receiving ARV Therapy for PMTCT in Kenya (AIDS and Behavior, March 2018)

Dr. Samuel Gurrion Ouma

Research Scientist

Dr Gurrion is a Medical Doctor with 17 years medical practice and 11 years clinical research expertise. He is working on a Moderna CoVPN 3008 study as a Co-Investigator (NCT05168813). He currently also is the site KEMRI CGHR HIVR site PI for CoVPN 3005 , a novel mono and Bivalent Sanofi Pasteur COVID 19 vaccine trial ( NCT04904549). He has been a Co-Investigator in several ACTG studies in Kenya KISUMU CRS site 31460. He played a Co-Investigator role in A5279, in which the site enrolled 45 patients of the global target and published a landmark publication showing that 14 weeks of Isoniazid and Rifapentine works just as well as 9 months of Isoniazid in preventing TB disease in HIV positive individuals (NEJM).

He has also worked as a Principal Investigator in A5349/TBTC Study 31. The site enrolled 54 patients out of the global target and the study showed that the new proposed 17 week Rifapentine Moxifloxacin based regimen works just as well as standard of care in treatment of drug susceptible TB (NEJM).  He was also a study coordinator for an EDCTP funded Adenovirus 35 viral vectored TB vaccine AERAS 402 (NCT01198366). He has also served as a site Principal Investigator for HPTN 084, a study that tested Cabotegravir as a long acting PREP injection for HIV prevention. The site enrolled 65 participants of the Global Target. Through this study, FDA approved Cabotegravir as Long Acting Injectable PREP on 20 Dec 2021.

Another key role played in all those studies is Safety Reporting of adverse and serious adverse events.

Academic and Professional Profile

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (University of Nairobi ) .

Higher Diploma in Public Health (Epidemiology). (University of Liverpool)

Fundementals of Global Health Research . 2020. (University of Washington)

Epidemiology in Global Health . 2021. (University of Washington.)

Project Management. 2021. (University of Washington.)

Selected Publications
  1. Taryn A McLaughlin, Jeremiah Khayumbi, Joshua Ongalo, Joan Tonui, Angela Campbell, Salim Allana, Samuel Gurrion Ouma, Felix Hayara Odhiambo, Neel R Ghandhi, Cheryl L Day. CD4 T cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Schistosoma Mansoni co-infected individuals maintain functional TH-1 responses. 07 Feb 2020. Frontiers in Immunology , Microbial Immunology section.
  2. HIV infection is associated with downregulation of BTLA expression on Mycobacterium tuberculosis- specific CD4 T cells in active tuberculosis disease Journal: Frontiers in Immunology, section T Cell Biology. Article type: Original Research, 21 August 2019.  Authors:  Morgan S. Barham, Deborah A. Abrahams, Jeremiah Khayumbi, Joshua Ongalo, Joan Tonui, Angela Campbell, Marwou de Kock, Felix Hayara Odhiambo, Samuel Gurrion Ouma, Neel Gandhi, Willem Hanekom, Cheryl L Day
  3. Steve Wandiga, Janet Agaya, Samuel Gurrion Ouma, Ochieng Albert Okumu, Grace Kiringa, Juliana Otieno, Geoffrey Mwai, Videlis Nduba, Stephen Munga . Collaborative Tuberculosis Research agenda at KEMRI Center for Global Health Research Kisumu Kenya. April 2019. British Medical Journal Global Health 4 ( Suppl 3)
  4. Wendy E. Whatney1, Neel R. Gandhi2, 3, Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn4, Azhar Nizam5, Hao Wu5, Melanie J. Quezada1, Angela Campbell2, Salim Allana2, Mbuyi Madeleine Kabongo2, Jeremiah Khayumbi6, Benson Muchiri6, Joshua Ongalo6, Joan Tonui6, Loren E. Sasser1, Tawania J. Fergus7, Gregory Sadat Ouma6, Samuel Gurrion Ouma6, Allison A. Beck3, Mark J. Mulligan3, Alawode Oladele8, Deepak Kaushal9,10, Kevin P. Cain11, Lance Waller5, Henry M. Blumberg3, John D. Altman1, 12, Joel D. Ernst7, Jyothi Rengarajan1, 3*, Cheryl L. Day1, 12* A high throughput whole blood assay for analysis of multiple antigen-specific T cell responses in human Mycobacterium tuberculosis The Journal of Immunology. Vol 200, Issue 8, 15 April 2018.
  5. R Odero, S Musau, P Madara, Sitati R, Okumu A, Samuel Gurrion Ouma, Okeyo E, Eisenach K, S Wandiga ( 2017) Validation of selective Middlebrook Agar with and without Carbendazim to reduce contamination in Quantitative cultures in Kenya . Presented at the KEMRI KASH conference 2017
  6. Apudo P, Kiringa G, Odeny L, Samuel Gurrion Ouma , Nduba V (2013). Poster Presentation.The effects of Nutritional Rehabilitation on the frequency of sick visits in participants enrolled in AERAS 402 TB Vaccine Trial. Presented at the KEMRI KASH conference.