Current Research Areas

  1. Prevalence of Genetic Variability of Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 and Its Impact on Malaria Diagnosis in Kenya.
  2. Assessment of therapeutic efficacy to the antifolates, artemisinin and non-artemisinin-based combinations against falciparum malaria;
  3. Monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy using NGS sequencing platforms
  4. The potential of FeS (Iron-sulfur) biogenesis genes, Selected Kinases and Major Transporters as mediators of resistance to amodiaquine (AQ), piperaquine (PQ) and lumefantrine (LM) in P. berghei and P. falciparum parasites.
  5. Molecular characterization and application of radionuclide techniques for the detection of drug-resistant malaria parasites.
  6. Transmission dynamics studies post-artemisinin-based intervention.
  7. Parasite population studies determining origin and dispersal mechanisms of resistant parasites.
  8. Human population studies investigating protection to malaria disease and prevalence of some human immune genes and other phenotypic markers.
  9. Development of new and effective kits and reagents for Diagnosis of malaria parasites; (RDts, LAMP)
  10. In vitro screening of natural products for antimalarial activity, towards bioprospecting for antimalarial agents.

Past, Recent, and Current activities

  1. World bank funded, East Africa Public health laboratory Network project. -EAPHLNP.
  2. KEMRI- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) projects (1999 to date), designated as a CoE for training on radioisotopes technology
  3. World Health Organization (WHO, Geneva) Steering Committee on Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Malaria.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO-AFRO) centre of excellence for disease surveillance(2010)
  5. Antimalarial Drug Resistance Working Group on ‘Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Infants (IPTi) Consortium in Africa’ (for Kenya, Mozambique, Gabon, Tanzania, The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-UK, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona-Spain, University of Tubingen-Germany-funded by the Bill-Mellinda Gates Foundation)- (2005-2006).
  6. Multilateral Initiative on Malaria on Antimalarial Drug Resistance Network for Africa-funded by  TDR (Tropical Disease Research)/WHO/UNDP/UNICEF (2002- 2005).
  7. Students training BSc attachees, Masters and PhD Degree students


  1. IAEA and NCST
  2. Department of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK;
  3. Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands;
  4. MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis & Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK;
  5. Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Moshi, Tanzania;
  6. The Royal Tropical Institute, KIT in the Netherlands,
  7. Departments of Genetics and Biology, University of Pennsylvania- US,
  8. ICIPE, ILRI, University of Nairobi,
  9. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture, University of Egerton, Moi University Mount Kenya University and Kenyatta University.

Selected Publications

  1. Gabriel m kishoyian Eliud N.M. Njagi  George O. Orinda  Francis T. Kimani  Kevin Thiongo  Damaris Matoke-Muhia. (2021). Efficacy of Artemisinin-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria after more than a decade after its use in Kenya. Epidemiol Infect . 5;149: doi: 10.1017/S0950268820003167.
  2. Ndeye Fatou Kane; Mutinda Cleophas Kyama; Joseph Kangethe Nganga; Ahmed Hassanali; Mouhamadou Diallo; Francis Kimani. (2021). Expression of the Fab enzymes (Fab I and Fab Z) from Plasmodium falciparum after exposure to Artemisia afra plant extracts and drugs screening. Malaria Journal, in press.
  3. Baptiste Niyibizi, Peter G. Kirira, Francis T. Kimani, Fiona Oyatsi, and Joseph K. Ng’ang’a. (2020). Chemical Synthesis, Efficacy, and Safety of Antimalarial Hybrid Drug Comprising of Sarcosine and Aniline Pharmacophores as Scaffolds. Journal of Tropical Medicine,
  4. Fagdéba David Bara; Loise Ndung’u; Noah Machuki Onchieku; Beatrice Irungu; Simplice Damintoti Karou; Francis Kimani; Damaris Matoke-Muhia; Peter Mwitari; Gabriel Magoma; Alexis Nzila; Daniel Muthui Kiboi. (2020), Genetic alteration of ferredoxin NADP+-reductase or cysteine desulfurase in piperaquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei restores susceptibility to lumefantrine and abolishes the impact of probenecid, verapamil, and cyproheptadine. bioRxiv preprint doi:; t
  5. David Nderu, Francis Kimani, Kelvin Thiong’o, Evaline Karanja, Maureen Akinyi, Edwin Too, William Chege, Eva Nambati, Christian G. Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan (2019). Plasmodium falciparum histidinerich protein (PfHRP2 and 3) diversity in Western and Coastal Kenya. Nature Scientific Reports; 9:1709.
  6. Protus Omondi, Marion Burugu, Edwin Too, Eva A. Nambati, William Chege, Kelvin B. Musyoka, Kelvin Thiongo, Maureen Otinga, Damaris Matoke Muhia, Francis Muregi, Francis Kimani. (2019). Gametocyte clearance in Children, from western Kenya, with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria after Artemether-Lumefantrine or Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Treatment. Malaria Journal.
  7. Job Oyweri, Awadh Mohammed, Rahma Udu, Jeremiah Gathirwa, Edwin Too, Protus Omondi, Suhaila Hashim, Laila Abubakar, Francis Kimani (2019). Antimalarial Potential and Safety of Different Black seed (Nigella sativa) Extracts. Biomed Research International Journal.
  8. David Nderu, Francis Kimani, Evaline Karanja, Kelvin Thiong’o, Maureen Akinyi, Edwin Too, William Chege, Eva Nambati, Laura N. Wangai, Christian G. Meyer and Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan. (2018). Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in Kenyan–Ugandan border areas. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 24(5);647–656 doi:10.1111/tmi,13223
  9. Gabriel Kishoyian, Eliud N.M. Njagi, George O. Orinda and Francis T. Kimani. (2018). Chloroquine Sensitivity and Prevalence of Chloroquine-resistant Genes pfcrt and pfmdr-1 in Western Kenya after Two Decades of Chloroquine Withdrawal. Ann Med Health Sci Res, 8:331-335
  10. David Nderu, Francis Kimani, Kelvin Thiong’o, Maureen Akinyi, Evaline Karanja, Christian G. Meyera, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavana. (2018). PfHRP2-PfHRP3 diversity among Kenyan isolates and comparative evaluation of PfHRP2/pLDH malaria RDT with microscopy and nested PCR methodologies. Parasitology International. 67;793–799.
  11. Onchieku NM, Mogire R, Ndung’u L, Mwitari P, Kimani F, Matoke-Muhia D, Daniel Kiboi , Gabriel Magoma. (2018). Deciphering the targets of retroviral protease inhibitors in Plasmodium berghei. PLoS ONE 13(8): e0201556.
  12. Eva A. Nambati, William C. Kiarie, Francis Kimani, James H. Kimotho, Maureen S. Otinga, Edwin Too, Stephen Kaniaru, Janice Limson and Wallace Bulimo (2018). Unclear association between levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and blood parasitaemia: diagnostic implications? Malaria Journal ; 17:9 .
  13. Kimani F, Nyandingisi A, Wanzala P, Too E, Githui W, Sang W, Kiptoo, Kariuki J, Ngari M, Njuguna P, Maingi C, Njagi K., Otinga M, Kaniaru S, Omar S.(2017). Evaluation of the Efficacy of Artemisinin Combination Therapy in Kenya; the status at Msabweni, Nyando and Busia, East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project study sites. EAPHLP newsletter Vol 2.
  14. Onyango C. Odhiambo, Hannah N. Wamakima, Gabriel N. Magoma, Peter G. Kirira, Bonface J. Malala, Francis T. Kimani and Francis W. Muregi. (2017). Efficacy and safety evaluation of a novel trioxaquine in the management of cerebral malaria in a mouse model . Malar Journal. 16:268 DOI 10.1186/s12936-017-1917-6.
  15. Muturi Njokah; Joseph Ng’ang’a; Daniel Kariuki; Johnson Kinyua; Francis Kimani (2016). In vitro selection of Plasmodium falciparum Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 variants by Artemisinin. Malaria Journal ; 15 :1.
  16. Kiarie W, Wangai L, Agola E, Kimani F, Hungu C. (2015). Chloroquine sensitivity: diminished prevalence of chloroquine-resistant gene marker pfcrt-76 13 years after cessation of chloroquine use in Msambweni, Kenya. Malaria Journal ; 14 :328 .
  17. Gimode R Winnie, Kiboi M Daniel, Kimani T Francis, Wamakima N Hannah, Burugu W Marion, Muregi W Francis, (2015). Fitness cost of resistance for lumefantrine and piperaquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei in a mouse model. Malaria Journal. 14:38
  18. Addimas Tajebe, Mulugeta Aemero, Kimani Francis, Gabriel Magoma (2015). Identification of chloroquine resistance Pfcrt-K76T and determination of Pfmdr1-N86Y copy number by SYBR Green I qPCR Original. Asian Pacific Journal of tropical Biomedicine. 6(3).
  19. Francis Makokha, Sabah A Omar, Francis T Kimani, Gabriel Magoma, Rahma Udu, Edwin K Too, Nathan Shavia, Charity Hungu. (2015). Distribution of PfEMP1 DBL-α Sequence Tags of  in Genomic DNA of P. falciparum Field Isolates from Two Malaria Endemic Sites in Kenya. Journal of Natural Sciences Research Vol.5, No.7,
  20. Francis W. Makokha, Peter C. Bull, Francis T. Kimani, Charity Hungu, Nathan Shaviya, Gabriel Magoma, Sabah O. Ahmed. (2015). Mapping of DBLα Sequence Tags of Field Isolates from Two Malaria Endemic Sites in Kenya.  Journal of Natural Sciences Research; Vol.5, No.11,
  21. Beatrice N. Irungu, Jennifer A. Orwa, Amra Gruhonjic, Paul Fitzpatrick, Göran Landberg, Francis Kimani, Jacob Midiwo, Mate Erdelyi , Abiy Yenesew, (2014). Constituents of the roots and leaves of Ekebergia capensis and their potential antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities. Molecules; 19(9),14235-14246
  22. Addimas Tajebe, Gabriel Magoma, Mulugeta Aemero, Francis Kimani. (2014). Detection of mixed infection level of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax by SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR in North Gondar, north-west Ethiopia. Malaria Journal 13:411
  23. Mugweru Julius, Waihenya Rebecca, Kimani Francis, Ng’ang’a Zipporah, Vivienne Matiru and Francis W. Muregi. (2013). Cytokine levels associated with experimental malaria pathology during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in a mouse model . Journal of Clinical Immnunology and Immunopathology Research ; 5(1):1-8
  24. Muregi FW, Wamakima HN, Kimani FT. (2012). Novel Drug Targets in Malaria Parasite with Potential to Yield Antimalarial Drugs with Long Useful Therapeutic Lives. Curr Pharm Des. 18(24):3505-21..
  25. Shaviya , M.C. Mang’era, W.F. Makokha, F.T. Kimani, J.R. Ongus.(2012). Expansion of the wild_type pfcrt 76K allele in Plasmodium falciparum populations in Mbita, Kenya. Afr J Health Sci.; 22:176-187
  26. Nnedu, O. N., O’Leary, M. P., Mutua, D., Mutai, B., Kalantari-Dehaghi, M., Jasinskas, A., Nakajima-Sasaki, R., John-Stewart, G., Otieno, P., Liang, X., Waitumbi, J., Kimani, F., Camerini, D., Felgner, P. L., Walson, J. L. and Vigil, A. (2011), Humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum among HIV-1-infected Kenyan adults. PROTEOMICS – Clinical Applications, 5: 613–623.

Malaria Division / Human Identification Department (HID)

Division Head, Malaria: Mr. Francis Kimani

Other Scientific Staff:

  1. Kelvin Thiong’o
  2. Mr. Fredrick Kiarie
  3. Mr. Edwin Too – on study leave

Technical Staff:

Ms. Maureen Otinga

HID Department Head: Ms. Eva Aluvaala

  1. Tiffany Wandera